Teaching machines are mechanical, electrical, or other automatic devices that present items of information in planned sequence, register users’ response to each item, and immediately indicate the acceptability of each response. The best known are from Pressey, Skinner, and Crowder and follow general principles of programmed instruction.
A teaching machine can be considered as any mechanical device used for presenting a program of instructional material. Since antiquity, instruction has relied on machines as teaching aids (Buck 1989). Sometimes they are referred to as teaching machines, but these devices are associated with a particular type of educational purpose or activity (e.g., training soldiers). Teaching machines have a universal character, obeying a program.
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