Encyclopedia of Sustainable Management

Living Edition
| Editors: Samuel Idowu, René Schmidpeter, Nicholas Capaldi, Liangrong Zu, Mara Del Baldo, Rute Abreu

Biodiversity: Environment

  • Eila JeronenEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02006-4_902-1

Synonyms

Definition/Description

Biodiversity is the shortened form of two words “biological” and “diversity.” Since the Convention on Biological Diversity was adopted at the Rio “Earth Summit” in 1992 (UNCED 1993), biodiversity has been discussed on three dimensions: ecosystems, species, and genes. Ecosystem diversity relates to the variety of habitats, biotic communities, ecological processes, and the diversity within ecosystems. An ecosystem is (UN 1992): “a dynamic complex of plant, animal, and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit.” For a business, an ecosystem perspective focuses on where a company operates within the ecological landscape (IUCN 2002).

Species diversity refers to the variety of species within a region. The “biological species definition” or the “biological species concept” is based on Ernst Mayr’s definition (Mayr 1942): “Species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Alexander, D. E., & Fairbridge, R. W. (Eds.). (1999). Encyclopedia of environmental science. Dordrecht: Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-4494-6.Google Scholar
  2. Butchart, S. H. M., Walpole, M., Collen, B., van Strien, A., Scharlemann, J. P. W., Almond, R. E. A., & Watson, R. (2010). Global biodiversity: Indicators of recent declines. Science, 328, 1164–1168.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1187512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chace, J. F., & Walsh, J. J. (2006). Urban effects on native avifauna: A review. Landscape and Urban Planning, 74(1), 46–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility). (2011). Reporting 2011, planet. http://csrreporting.sanofi.com/web/planet/biodiversity. Accessed 31 Oct 2012.
  5. Davenport, M. A., & Anderson, D. H. (2005). Getting from sense of place to place-based management: An interpretive investigation of place meanings and perceptions of landscape change. Society and Natural Resources, 18(7), 625–641.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920590959613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Earthwatch. (2018). Company biodiversity action plan. Biodiversity forms one of the corner stones of sustainable development. The Business & Biodiversity Resource Centre. http://www.businessandbiodiversity.org/action_company_bap.html. Accessed 31 Oct 2018.
  7. Fuller, R. A., Tratalos, J., Warren, P. H., Davies, R. G., Pępkowska, A., & Gaston, K. J. (2010). Environment and biodiversity. Chapter 4. In M. Jenks, & C. Jones (Eds.), Dimensions of the sustainable city. Future city, 2 (pp. 75–103). Springer: Science+Business Media B.V.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8647-2_4.
  8. Gaston, K. J., & Spicer, J. I. (2004). Biodiversity: An introduction (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  9. Gobster, P. H., Nassauer, J. I., Daniel, T. C., & Fry, G. (2007). The shared landscape: What does aesthetics have to do with ecology? Landscape Ecology, 22, 959–972.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-007-9110-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Henry, J. A., & Dicks, S. E. (1987). Association of urban temperatures with land-use and surface materials. Landscape and Urban Planning, 14(1), 21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Heywood, V. H., & Watson, R. T. (1995). Global biodiversity assessment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Hoffman, B. D., & Courchamp, F. (2016). Biological invasions and natural colonisations: Are they that different? NeoBiota, 29, 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.29.6959. Accessed 31 Oct 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Holdgate, M. W. (1979). Pollution and pollutants. Definitions. In M. W. Holdgate (Ed.), A perspective of environmental pollution (p. 17). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521 299721 1.Google Scholar
  14. IUCN. (2002). Business & biodiversity – The handbook for corporate action. World Business Council for Sustainable Development, Earthwatch Institute. https://portals.iucn.org/library/sites/library/files/documents/2002-022.pdf. Accessed 12 November 2018.
  15. Kassas, M. (2002). Environmental education: Biodiversity. Environmentalist, 22, 345–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kelemen, E., García-Llorente, M., Pataki, G., Martín-López, B., & Gómez-Baggethun, E. (2016). Non-monetary techniques for the valuation of ecosystem service. In M. Potschin-Young, & K. Jax (Eds.), OpenNESS ecosystem services reference book. http://www.openness-project.eu/library/reference-book. Accessed 12 Nov 2018.
  17. Larson, S., De Freitas, D. M., & Hicks, C. C. (2013). Sense of place as a determinant of people’s attitudes towards the environment: Implications for natural resources management and planning in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Journal of Environmental Management, 117, 226–234.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.11.035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lin, N., Chen, H., Jing, S., Liu, F., & Liang, X. (2017). Biomimicry of symbiotic multi-species coevolution for discrete and continuous optimization in RFID networks. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 24, 610–621. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1319562X17300426. Accessed 31 Oct 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Manchester, S. J., & Bullock, J. M. (2000). The impacts of non-native species on UK biodiversity and the effectiveness of control. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 845–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mayr, E. (1942). Systematics and the origin of species. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  21. McKinney, M. L. (2002). Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservation. Bioscience, 52(10), 883–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). (2003). Ecosystems and human well being: A framework for assessment. Washington, DC: Island Press. http://pdf.wri.org/ecosystems_human_wellbeing.pdf. Accessed 31 Oct 2018.Google Scholar
  23. MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press. https://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.356.aspx.pdf. Accessed 28 Nov 2018.Google Scholar
  24. Ministry of Environment & Finnish Environment Institute. (2016). Natural habitats. http://www.ymparisto.fi/en-US/Nature/Natural_habitats. Accessed 4 Nov 2018.
  25. Niemelä, J. (1999). Ecology and urban planning. Biodiversity and Conservation, 8(1), 119–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pickett, S. T. A., Cadenasso, M. L., Grove, J. M., Nilon, C. H., Pouyat, R. V., Zipperer, W. C., & Costanza, R. (2001). Urban ecological systems: Linking terrestrial ecological, physical, and socioeconomic components of metropolitan areas. Annual Reviews in Ecology and Systematics, 32, 127–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rai, P. K. (2016). Particulate matter and its size fractionation. In Biomagnetic monitoring of particulate matter in the Indo-Burma hotspot region 2016 (pp. 1–13).  https://doi.org/10.1016/C2015-0-01874-3. Accessed 31 Oct 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rebele, F. (1994). Urban ecology and special features of urban ecosystems. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 4(6), 173–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ruggiero, M. A., Gordon, D. P., Orrell, T. M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R. C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D., & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A higher level classification of all living organisms. PLoS One, 10(4), e0119248.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119248. Accessed 31 Oct 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sala, O. E., Mayerson, L. A., & Parmesan, C. (Eds.). (2009). Biodiversity change and human health: From ecosystem services to spread of diseases (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), 69). Washington, DC: Island Press. ISBN 9781597264969.Google Scholar
  31. Schulze, E.-D., Beck, E., & Müller-Hohenstein, K. (2005). Plant ecology. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  32. UN (United Nations). (1992). Convention on biological diversity. https://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cbd-en.pdf. Accessed 29 Oct 2018.
  33. UN (United Nations). (2018). Climate change and biodiversity. Convension on biological diversity. https://www.cbd.int/climate/intro.shtml. Accessed 31 Oct 2018.
  34. UN Environment (United Nations Environment). (2018). Biodiversity and ecosystems. http://www.unenvironment.org/explore-topics/resource-efficiency/what-we-do/cities/biodiversity-and-ecosystems. Accessed 4 Nov 2018.
  35. UNCED (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development). (1993). The final text of agreements negotiated by governments at United Nation’s Conference on Environment and Development, in agenda 21: Programme of action for sustainable development: Rio declaration on environment and development; statement of forest principles. In Proceedings of the UNCED (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3–14 June 1992. New York: United Nations Department of Public Information.Google Scholar
  36. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). (2014). Learning about biodiversity – Multiple-perspective approaches; education for sustainable development in action. Learning and training tools, 6; UNESCO education sector. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005–2014). http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002311/231155e.pdf. Accessed 29 Oct 2018.
  37. van Weelie, D., & Wals, A. E. J. (2002). Making biodiversity meaningful through environmental education. International Journal of Science Education, 24(11), 1143–1156.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690210134839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development). (1987). Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our common future. UN Documents Gathering a body of global agreements. http://www.un-documents.net/wced-ocf.htm. Accessed 27 Oct 2018.
  39. Williams, D. R., & Stewart, S. I. (1998). Sense of place. An elusive concept that is finding a home in ecosystem management. Journal of Forestry, 96(5), 18–23.Google Scholar
  40. Woese, C., Kandler, O., & Wheelis, M. (1990). Towards a natural system of organisms: Proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 87(12), 4576–4579. http://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/87/12/4576.full.pdf. Accessed 4 Nov 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  2. 2.Faculty of Educational SciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Faculty of EducationUniversity of LaplandRovaniemiFinland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Kristijan Krač

There are no affiliations available