Epileptogenesis After Ischemic-Hypoxic Encephalopathy
Introduction and Definitions
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) most commonly refers to neonatal brain injury that results from insufficient brain oxygenation. HIE can occur due to systemic hypoxemia, decreased cerebral blood flow, or both, and acute symptomatic seizures frequently comprise part of the encephalopathy. Hypoxia is a major cause of neonatal seizures, accounting for as much as 60% of all neonatal seizures. Approximately 25–30% of term infants who experienced neonatal seizures will develop epilepsy, and thus, the occurrence of neonatal seizures associated with a hypoxic/ischemic event significantly increases the risk to develop epilepsy. Additional neurological sequelae can include cognitive delay and motor deficits. Currently, the pathophysiological mechanisms that trigger acute seizures and those that mediate epileptogenesis consequent to HIE are poorly understood.
Etiology or Methods
Although the underlying cause may not be identified in all individuals, perinatal HIE...