Epileptogenesis After Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Asla Pitkänen
  • Tamuna Bolkvadze
Reference work entry


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most significant health epidemics of our time. Every 21 s, one person in the USA sustains a TBI, and it is estimated that TBI annually affects about 1.5 million Americans. TBI is the leading cause of death among young adults (<45 years) and one of the major causes of disability in the overall population. TBI is estimated to cause 10–20% of all symptomatic epilepsies (Annegers et al. 1998). It is estimated that in the European Union (EU) and USA, at least 0.5 million surviving individuals live with posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE).

The 30-year cumulative incidence of epilepsy is 2.1% for mild (loss of consciousness or amnesia <30 min), 4.2% for moderate (loss of consciousness 30 min–24 h or skull fracture), and 16.7% for severe (with loss of consciousness or amnesia >24 h, subdural hematoma, or brain contusion) injuries (Annegers et al. 1998). Some TBI patients present with penetrating head injury (e.g., bullet wounds), of which up to...


Traumatic Brain Injury Closed Head Injury Control Cortical Impact Spontaneous Seizure Brain Injury Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations


Blood brain barrier


Controlled cortical impact


Lateral fluid-percussion injury


Posttraumatic epilepsy


Traumatic brain injury


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asla Pitkänen
    • 1
  • Tamuna Bolkvadze
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurobiologyA.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of KuopioKuopioFinland

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