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The Functional and Structural Impact of Epileptic Seizures on the Developing Brain

  • Aristea S. GalanopoulouEmail author
  • Antonietta Coppola
  • Emmanuel Raffo
Reference work entry

Introduction and Definitions

Seizures are particularly common early in life and especially during the neonatal and infantile periods. Their clinical semiology, comorbidities, as well the type of epilepsies that evolve later differ from those that appear in adults. Of imminent clinical interest is to predict when brain dysfunction will occur after a first seizure, when epilepsy will develop, and what will be the best way to prevent or treat seizures and their comorbidities. Essential tools in the quest for such answers have been the in vivo and in vitro models of seizures and epilepsies. These model brief (lasting a few minutes) or longer (typically less than 30 min) isolated episodes of seizures, as well as status epilepticus (SE), i.e., continuous or frequent seizure activity for at least 30 min without interictal recovery ( Induced and Acquired Epileptogenicity in Animal Models). Studies on the effects of seizures at distinct developmental ages have well established that the...

Keywords

Status Epilepticus Dentate Gyrus Mossy Fiber Febrile Seizure Hippocampal Sclerosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations

DG

Dentate gyrus

KA

Kainic acid

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

PTZ

Pentylenetetrazole

SE

Status epilepticus

Notes

Acknowledgment

We would like to acknowledge the funding by NIH NINDS research grants NS20253, NS58303, NS45243, NINDS/NICHD grant NS62947 as well as grants from People Against Childhood Epilepsy, the International Rett Syndrome Foundation, Johnson & Johnson, and the Heffer Family Foundation. We are grateful to our technicians Ms Qianyun Li, Ms Wei Liu and Mrs Hong Wong for their outstanding technical assistance.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aristea S. Galanopoulou
    • 2
    Email author
  • Antonietta Coppola
    • 1
  • Emmanuel Raffo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyAlbert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University10461, BronxUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyAlbert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University10461, BronxUSA

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