Neurotransmitters, Ions, Their Receptors and Channels
Excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, through neurotransmitter and voltage-gated ion channels and metabotropic receptors, keep the brain in a dynamically balanced state, where neurons discharge synchronously and signals propagate to their destination. A seizure, which at the brain cell level is an overly synchronized sequence of discharges, starts because of a temporary imbalance between excitation and inhibition, which allows (i) abnormally large depolarizations of individual neurons and (ii) the recruitment of an abnormally large number of neurons into synchronous discharges. The seizure eventually stops because the excitatory stimulus “dies out” or the inhibitory mechanisms rise to the challenge of suppressing it. What then starts a seizure and what stops it?
Are there neurotransmitters or ions that are particularly important in the pathogenesis of the epilepsies? To answer this question, different methodologies have been used and both human and animal tissue. The...
KeywordsGABAA Receptor Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Membrane Channel Metabotropic Receptor Epileptic Syndrome
- Webster RA (ed) (2001) Neurotransmitters, drugs and brain function, Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar