Water in Loess

  • Peiyue LiEmail author
  • Hui Qian
Reference work entry
Part of the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Series book series (ESSTS)


Available water capacity

Available water capacity is the soil water content within a range between field capacity and wilting point. It is the soil water content that can be retained in the soil and is available for plants.

Confined groundwater

Confined groundwater is the counterpart of phreatic groundwater or unconfined groundwater. It refers to the groundwater stored in confined aquifers, which are overlain by a confining layer made up of low permeability materials such as clay.

Ecological civilization

Ecological civilization is a term that describes a new stage of the development of human civilization. It represents a new stage of civilization following industrial civilization and is the final goal of an environmental reform within a given society. Ecological civilization can be described as the sum of all material and ideological achievements obtained by employing strategies for a harmonious development of the human society and the environment. It involves a synthesis of...


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Books and Reviews

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environmental Science and EngineeringChang’an UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region of the Ministry of EducationChang’an UniversityXi’anChina

Section editors and affiliations

  • James LaMoreaux
    • 1
  1. 1.P.E. LaMoreaux & Associates, Inc.TuscaloosaUSA

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