Earthquake Faulting: Ground Motions and Deformations

  • Ömer AydanEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Series book series (ESSTS)


Earthquake fault

The fault which produces an earthquake

Ground motions

The movement of ground induced by earthquakes and they involve displacement, velocity and acceleration of ground

Engineering structures

Structures built by engineers for a given purpose and they generally involve buildings, civil engineering structures such as bridges, tunnels, dams, pylons etc


physical harm impairing the normal function of a given object

Definition of the Subject and Its Importance

Ground motion characteristics, deformation, and surface breaks of earthquakes depend upon the causative faults. Their effects on the seismic design of engineering structures are not considered in the present codes of design although there are attempts to include in some countries (i.e., the USA, Japan, Taiwan). This chapter describes ground motions and the effect of surface ruptures associated with earthquake faulting on response and stability of engineering structures.


Earthquakes are known...


  1. 1.
    Aydan Ö (2003) Actual observations and numerical simulations of surface fault ruptures and their effects engineering structures. The Eight U.S.-Japan Workshop on Earthquake Resistant Design of Lifeline Facilities and Countermeasures Against Liquefaction. Technical Report, MCEER-03-0003, pp 227–237Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aydan Ö, Ulusay R, Hasgür Z, Hamada M (1999) The behaviour of structures built in active fault zones in view of actual examples from the 1999 Kocaeli and Chi-chi Earthquakes. ITU-IAHS International Conference on the Kocaeli Earthquake 17 August 1999: A Scientific Assessment and Recommendations for Re-building, Istanbul, pp 131–142Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aydan Ö, Ohta Y (2006) The characteristics of ground motions in the neighbourhood of earthquake faults and their evaluation. Symposium on the Records and Issues of Recent Great Earthquakes in Japan and Overseas, EEC-JSCE, Tokyo, 114–120Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aydan Ö, Ohta Y (2011) A new proposal for strong ground motion estimations with the consideration of characteristics of earthquake fault. Seventh National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, IstanbulGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aydan Ö (2007) Inference of seismic characteristics of possible earthquakes and liquefaction and landslide risks from active faults (in Turkish). The 6th National Conference on Earthquake Engineering of Turkey, Istanbul, vol 1, pp 563–574Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ohta Y, Aydan Ö (2004) An experimental study on ground motions and permanent deformation nearby faults. J Sch Mar Sci Technol 2(3):1–12Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ohta Y (2011) A fundamental research on the effects of ground motions and permanent ground deformations nearborhoud earthquake faults on civil engineering structures (in Japanese). Doctorate Thesis, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokai University, 272 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ohta Y, Aydan Ö (2009) An experimental and theoretical study on stick-slip phenomenon with some considerations from scientific and engineering viewpoints of earthquakes. J Sch Mar Sci Technol 8(3):53–67Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ohta Y, Aydan Ö (2010) The dynamic responses of geomaterials during fracturing and slippage. Rock Mech Rock Eng 43(6):727–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chang T-Y, Cotton F, Tsai Y-B, Angelier J (2004) Quantification of Hanging-Wall Effects on Ground Motion: Some Insights from the 1999 Chi-chi Earthquake. Bull Seismol Soc Am 94(6):2186–2197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ulusay R, Aydan Ö, Hamada M (2002) The Behavior of structures built on active fault zones: examples from the recent earthquakes of Turkey. Struct Eng Earthq Eng JSCE 19(2):149–167Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Somerville PG, Smith NF, Graves RW, Abrahamson NA (1997) Modification of empirical strong ground motion attenuation relations to include the amplitude and duration effects of rupture directivity. Seismol Res Lett 68:199–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tsai YB, Huang MW 2000 Strong ground motion characteristics of the Chi-chi Taiwan earthquake of September 21, 1999. 2000 NCHU-Waseda Joint Seminar on Earthquake Engineering, 17–18 July 2000, Taichung, vol 1, pp 1–32Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aydan Ö, Kumsar H, Toprak S, Barla G (2009) Characteristics of 2009 l’Aquila earthquake with an emphasis on earthquake prediction and geotechnical damage. J Mar Sci Technol Tokai Univ 9(3):23–51Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Abrahamson NA, Somerville PG (1996) Effects of the hanging wall and footwall on ground motions recorded during the Northridge earthquake. Bull Seismol Soc Am 86(1B):593–599Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Aydan Ö (2003) An experimental study on the dynamic responses of geomaterials during fracturing. J Sch Mar Sci Technol Tokai Univ 1(2):1–7Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aydan Ö, Ohta Y, Geniş M, Tokashiki N, Ohkubo K (2010) Response and Earthquake induced Damage of Underground Structures in Rock Mass. J Rock Mech Tunnel Technol 16(1):19–45Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Aydan Ö, Ohta Y, Geniş M, Tokashiki N, Ohkubo K (2010) Response and stability of underground structures in rock mass during earthquakes. Rock Mech Rock Eng 43(6):857–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aydan Ö, Daido M, Tokashiki N, Bilgin A, Kawamoto T (2007) Acceleration response of rocks during fracturing and its implications in earthquake engineering. 11th ISRM Congress, Lisbon, vol 2, pp 1095–1100Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nasu N (1931) Comparative studies of earthquake motions above ground and in a tunnel. Bull Earthq Res Inst Tokyo Univ 9:454–472Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kanai K, Tanaka T (1951) Observations of earthquake motion at different depths of the earth. Bull Earthq Res Inst Tokyo Univ 28:107–113Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    K-NET and KiK-Net (2007, 2008) Digital acceleration records of earthquakes since 1998. and
  23. 23.
    Kawashima K, Aydan Ö, Aoki T, Kishimoto I, Konagai K, Matsui T, Sakuta J, Takahashi N, Teodori SP, Yashima A (2010) Reconnaissance Investigation on the Damage of the 2009 L’Aquila, Central Italy Earthquake. J Earthq Eng 14:817–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Joyner WB, Boore DM (1981) Peak horizontal acceleration and velocity from strong motion records from the 1979 Imperial Valley California Earthquake. Bull Seismol Soc Am 71(6):2011–2038Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Aydan Ö, Sezaki M, Yarar R (1996) The seismic characteristics of Turkish Earthquakes. The 11th world conference on earthquake Engineering, CD-2, Paper No 1270Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Aydan Ö (2001) Comparison of suitability of submerged tunnel and shield tunnel for subsea passage of Bosphorus (in Turkish). Geol Eng J 25(1):1–17Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Campbell KW (1981) Near source attenuation of peak horizontal acceleration. Bull Seismol Soc Am 71(6):2039–2070Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ambraseys NN (1988) Engineering Seismology. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 17:1–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Iwata N, Adachi K, Takahashi Y, Aydan Ö, Tokashiki N, Miura F (2016) Fault rupture simulation of the 2014 Kamishiro Fault Nagano Prefecture Earthquake using 2D and 3D–FEM. EUROCK2016, Ürgüp, pp 803–808Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Aydan Ö, Shimizu Y, Akagi T, Kawamoto T (1997) Development of fracture zones in rock masses. International symposium on deformation and progressive failure in geomechanics, IS-NAGOYA, pp 533–538Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hamada M, Aydan Ö (1992) A report on the site investigation of the March 13 Earthquake of Erzincan, Turkey. ADEP, Association for Development of Earthquake Prediction, 86 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Reilinger RE, Ergintav S, Burgmann R, McClusky S, Lenk O, Barka A, Gürkan O, Hearn L, Feigl KL, Çakmak R, Aktug B, Özener H, Toksöz MN (2000) Coseismic and postseismic fault slip for the 17 August 1999, M = 7.5, Izmit, Turkey Earthquake. Science 289Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Asakura T, Sato Y (1998) Mountain Tunnels Damage in the 1995 in Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake. 39(1), Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI), pp 9–16Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Aydan Ö (1996) Faulting and characteristics of earthquake waves in Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake of January 17, 1995 (in Turkish). Jeoloji Mühendisliği 48:63–77Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Aydan Ö, Kawamoto T (2004) The damage to abandoned lignite mines caused by the 2003 Miyagi-Hokubu earthquake and some considerations on its causes. 3rd Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium, Kyoto, pp 525–530Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Aydan Ö, Kumsar H (2010) An Experimental and Theoretical Approach on the Modeling of Sliding Response of Rock Wedges under Dynamic Loading. Rock Mech Rock Eng 43(6):821–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Aydan Ö, Hamada M (2006) Damage to Civil Engineering Structures by Oct. 8, 2005 Kashmir Earthquake and Recommendations for Recovery and Reconstruction. J Disaster Res 1(3):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Aydan Ö, Hamada M, Suzuki Y (2005) Some observations and considerations on the damage induced by the tsunami of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake on structures and coast. J Sch Mar Sci Technol 3(1):79–94Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Aydan Ö, Miwa S, Kodama H, Suzuki T (2005) The Characteristics of M8.7 Nias Earthquake of March 28, 2005 and Induced Tsunami and Structural Damages. J Sch Mar Sci Technol Tokai Univ 3(2):66–83Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Aydan Ö, Ohta Y, Hamada M (2009) Geotechnical evaluation of slope and ground failures during the 8 October 2005 Muzaffarabad earthquake in Pakistan. J Seismol 13(3):399–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Aydan Ö, Hamada M, Itoh J, Ohkubo K (2009b) Damage to civil engineering structures with an emphasis on rock slope failures and tunnel damage induced by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. J Disaster Res 4(2):153–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hashimoto S, Miwa K, Ohashi M, Fuse K (1999) Surface soil deformation and tunnel deformation caused by the September 3, 1998, Mid-North Iwate Earthquake. 7th Tohoku Regional Convention, Japan Society of Engineering GeologyGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yashiro K, Kojima Y, Shimizu M (2007) Historical earthquake damage to tunnels in Japan and case studies of railways tunnels in the 2004 Niigata-ken Chuetsu earthquake. QR of RTRI 48(3):136–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Asakura T, Shiba Y, Sato Y, Iwatate T (1996) Mountain tunnels performance in 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake. Special Report of the 1995 Hyogo-ken nanbu Earthquake, Committee of Earthquake Engineering, JSCEGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Aydan Ö, Kumsar H (1997) A site investigation of Oct. 1, 1995 Dinar Earthquake. Turkish Earthquake Foundation,TDV/DR 97–003Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Aydan Ö, Ulusay R, Kumsar H, Sönmez H, Tuncay E (1998) A site investigation of Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake of June 27, 1998. Turkish Earthquake Foundation, TDV/DR 006–30, 131 ppGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Aydan Ö, Ulusay R, Hasgür Z, Taşkın B 1999 A site investigation of Kocaeli Earthquake of August 17, 1999. Turkish Earthquake Foundation, TDV/DR 08–49, 180 ppGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Aydan Ö, Ulusay R, Kumsar H, Tuncay E 2000a Site investigation and engineering evaluation of the Düzce-Bolu Earthquake of November 12, 1999. Turkish Earthquake Foundation, TDV/DR 095–51, 307ppGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ulusay R, Aydan Ö, Erken E, Kumsar H, Tuncay E, Kaya Z (2003) Site Investigation and Engineering Evaluation of the Cay-Eber Earthquake of February 3, 2002. Turkish Earthquake Foundation, TDV/DR 012–79. 213 ppGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wang WL, Wang TT, JJ S, Lin CH, Seng CR, Huang TH (2001) Assessment of damage in mountain tunnels due to the Taiwan Chi-chi earthquake. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 16:133–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Aydan Ö, Ohta Y, Hamada M, Ito J, Ohkubo K (2009)The response and damage of structures along the fault rupture traces of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. International Conference on Earthquake Engineering: the 1st Anniversary of Wenchuan Earthquake, Chengdu, pp 625–633Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Aydan Ö, Dalgıç S, Kawamoto T (2000) Prediction of squeezing potential of rocks in tunnelling through a combination of an analytical method and rock mass classifications. Ital Geotech J 34(1):41–45Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kuno H (1935) The geologic section along the Tanna Tunnel. Bull Earthq Res Inst Univ Tokyo 14:92–103Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sakurai T (1999) A report on the earthquake fault appearing in the Tanna tunnel under construction by North-Izu Earthquake 1930 (in Japanese). J Japan Soc Eng Geol 39(6):540–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kawakami H (1984) Evaluation of deformation of tunnel structure due to Izu-Oshima Kinkai earthquake of 1978. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 12(3):369–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tsuneishi Y, Ito T, Kano K (1978) Surface faulting associated with the 1978 Izu-Oshima- Kinkai earthquake. Bull Earthq Res Inst, Univ Tokyo 53:649–674Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Aydan Ö, Tomiyama J, Matsubara H, Tokashiki N, Iwata N (2017) The characteristics of damage to rock engineering structures induced by the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes. Proceedings of the 14th Japan Rock Mechanics Symposium, Japan Society for Rock Mechanics, January 2017, IRMS044, 6 ppGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Aydan, Ö., Y. Shimizu and T. Kawamoto (1992). The stability of rock slopes against combined shearing and sliding failures and their stabilisation. Int. Symp. on Rock Slopes, New Delhi, 203–210.Google Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. Fowler CMR (1990) The solid earth – an introduction to global geophysics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  2. Okamoto S (1973) Introduction to earthquake engineering. University of Tokyo Press, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  3. Yeats RS, Sieh K, Allen CR (1997) The geology of earthquakes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, NYGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of the Ryukyus, NishiharaOkinawaJapan

Section editors and affiliations

  • James LaMoreaux
    • 1
  1. 1.P.E. LaMoreaux & Associates, Inc.TuscaloosaUSA

Personalised recommendations