Construction Planning: Environmental Impact of Foundation Studies and Earthquake Issues

  • Asadullah KaziEmail author
  • Bashir Memon
Reference work entry
Part of the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Series book series (ESSTS)



Smaller earthquakes following the largest one (the main shock).


Increase in the amplitude of earthquake wave depending on the nature of ground.


The maximum height of a wave crest or depth of a trough.


Decrease in the amplitude of earthquake waves.


The vibration of the Earth caused by the passage of seismic waves.


The point on ground surface directly above the focus (hypocenter) of an earthquake.


The place at which an earthquake is initiated.


Number of vibrations per unit time.

Fundamental period

It is the period of an oscillating structure when subjected to shaking.

Ground motion

Movements of ground caused by the vibrations of earthquake.


A measure of ground shaking obtained from damage to man-made structures (Modified Mercalli scale).

Isoseismal map

Contour lines drawn to separate one level of seismic intensity from another for a given earthquake or maximum intensity expected of...


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Books and Reviews

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Isra UniversityHyderabadPakistan
  2. 2.P.E. LaMoreaux & AssociatesTuscaloosaUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • James LaMoreaux
    • 1
  1. 1.P.E. LaMoreaux & Associates, Inc.TuscaloosaUSA

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