Health System in China

  • David HipgraveEmail author
  • Yan Mu
Reference work entry
Part of the Health Services Research book series (HEALTHSR)


The health of China’s population improved dramatically during the first 30 years of the People’s Republic, established in 1949. By the mid-1970s, China was already undergoing the epidemiologic transition, years ahead of other nations of similar economic status, and by 1980, life expectancy (67 years) exceeded that of most similarly low-income nations by 7 years. Almost 30 years later, China’s 2009 health reforms were a response to deep inequity in access to affordable, quality healthcare resulting from three decades of marketization, including de facto privatization of the health sector, along with decentralized accountability and, to a large degree, financing of public health services. The reforms are built on earlier, equity-enhancing initiatives, particularly the reintroduction of social health insurance since 2003, and are planned to continue until 2020, with gradual achievement of overarching objectives on universal and equitable access to health services. The second phase of reform commenced in early 2012. China’s health reforms remain encouragingly specific but not prescriptive on strategy; set in the decentralized governance structure, they avoid the issue of reliance on local government support for the national equity objective, leaving the detailed design of health service financing, human resource distribution and accountability, essential drug lists and application of clinical care pathways, etc. to local health authorities answerable to local government, not the Ministry of Health. Community engagement in government processes, including in provision of healthcare, remains limited. This chapter uses the documentation and literature on health reform in China to provide a comprehensive overview of the current situation of the health sector and its reform in the People’s Republic.

List of Abbreviations


Communicable disease control


Gross domestic product


Health MIS


Health system reform


Low- and middle-income countries


Maternal and child health


Millennium Development Goals


Management information system


Ministry of Health


Noncommunicable diseases


National Development and Reform Commission


National Essential Drugs List


National Essential Medicines Scheme


National Health and Family Planning Commission


People’s Republic of China


Rural cooperative medical (insurance) scheme


Renminbi (unit of currency)


Traditional Chinese medicine


Total health expenditure


Urban employees basic medical insurance


Urban residents’ basic medical insurance


  1. Anand S, Fan VY, Zhang J, Zhang L, Ke Y, Dong Z, et al. China’s human resources for health: quantity, quality, and distribution. Lancet. 2008;372:1774–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Anonymous. False data China’s ‘biggest source of corruption’: statistics chief. Want China Times. 10 Apr 2012.Google Scholar
  3. Bai CE, Wu B. Health insurance and consumption: evidence from China’s New Cooperative Medical Scheme. J Comp Econ. 2014;42:450–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banister J, Hill K. Mortality in China 1964–2000. Popul Stud. 2000;58(1):55–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barber SL, Borowitz M, Bekedam H, Ma J. The hospital of the future in China: China’s reform of public hospitals and trends from industrialized countries. Health Policy Plan. 2014;29(3):367–78. Scholar
  6. Bien C. The barefoot doctors: China’s rural health care revolution, 1968–1981. [Departmental Honors]: Wesleyan University; 2008.Google Scholar
  7. Bloom G. Building institutions for an effective health system: lessons from China’s experience with rural health reform. Soc Sci Med. 2011;72:1302–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bloom G, Xingyuan G. Health sector reform: lessons from China. Soc Sci Med. 1997;45(3):351–60. Epub 1 Aug 1997.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Blumenthal D, Hsiao W. Privatization and its discontents – the evolving Chinese health care system. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(11):1165–70. Epub 16 Sept 2005.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Brixi H, Mu Y, Targa B, Hipgrave D. Engaging sub-national governments in addressing health equities: challenges and opportunities in China’s health system reform. Health Policy Plan. 2012. Scholar
  11. Cai Y. An assessment of China’s fertility level using the variable-r method. Demography. 2008;45(2):271–81. Epub 11 July 2008.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chan KY, Wang W, Wu JJ, Liu L, Theodoratou E, Car J, et al. Epidemiology of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia in China, 1990–2010: a systematic review and analysis. Lancet. 2013;381(9882):2016–23. Epub 12 June 2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen Y, Schweitzer SO. Issues in drug pricing, reimbursement, and access in China with reference to other Asia-Pacific Region. Value Health. 2008;11(Suppl 1):S124–S9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen W, Tang S, Sun J, Ross-Degnan D, Wagner AK. Availability and use of essential medicines in China: manufacturing, supply, and prescribing in Shandong and Gansu provinces. BMC Health Serv Res. 2010;10:211.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. China National Health and Family Planning Commission. Statistical bulletin on national health and family planning development. National Health and Family Planning Commission of the PRC, Beijing; 2012.Google Scholar
  16. China National Health Development Research Centre. China National Health Account 2011 (in Chinese). Beijing: China National Health Development Research Centre; 2012.Google Scholar
  17. China National Health Development Research Centre. China National Health Account 2012 (in Chinese). Beijing: China National Health Development Research Centre; 2013.Google Scholar
  18. China News Network. Ministry of Health signs “military-style order” on health reforms to improve poor accountability (in Chinese). China News Network [Internet]. 2010. Available at: Last viewed 24 Oct 2014.
  19. Cui FQ, Wang XJ, Cao L. Progress in hepatitis B prevention through universal infant immunization – China, 1997–2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56(18):441–5.Google Scholar
  20. Deng G, Dou C, Gong Q. Ownership, fees and service quality by health providers. Econ Rev (Jingji Pinglun) (in Chinese). 2013;1:121–130.Google Scholar
  21. Di Martino K. China: ensuring equal access to education and healthcare for children of internal migrants. In: Bhabha J, editor. Children without a state: a global human rights challenge. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 2011.Google Scholar
  22. Dong L, Yan H, Wang D. Antibiotic prescribing patterns in village health clinics across 10 provinces of Western China. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62(2):410–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eggleston K, Ling L, Qingyue M, Lindelow M, Wagstaff A. Health service delivery in China: a literature review. Health Econ. 2008;17(2):149–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Feltenstein A, Iwata S. Decentralization and macroeconomic performance in China: regional autonomy has its costs. J Dev Econ. 2005;76(2):481–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Feng XL, Shi G, Wang Y, Xu L, Luo H, Shen J, et al. An impact evaluation of the Safe Motherhood Program in China. Health Econ. 2010a;19(Suppl):69–94. Epub 14 Sept 2010.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Feng XL, Zhu J, Zhang L, Song L, Hipgrave D, Guo S, et al. Socio-economic disparities in maternal mortality in China between 1996 and 2006. BJOG. 2010b;117(12):1527–36.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Feng X, Guo S, Hipgrave D, Zhu J, Zhang L, Song L, et al. China’s facility-based birth strategy and neonatal mortality: a population-based epidemiological study. Lancet. 2011;378:1493–500.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Gong P, Liang S, Carlton EJ, Jiang Q, Wu J, Wang L, et al. Urbanisation and health in China. Lancet. 2012;379(9818):843–52. Epub 6 Mar 2012.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gottret PE, Schieber G. Health financing revisited: a practitioner’s guide. Washington, DC: The World Bank; 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Government of China. State Council Guidance on further strengthening the ranks of rural doctors (in Chinese). 2011. Available at: Last viewed 24 Oct 2014.
  31. Guan X, Liang H, Xue Y, Shi L. An analysis of China’s national essential medicines policy. J Public Health Policy. 2011;32(3):305–19. Epub 27 May 2011.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Hipgrave D. Communicable disease control in China: from Mao to now. J Glob Health. 2011a;1(2):223–37.Google Scholar
  33. Hipgrave D. Perspectives on the progress of China’s 2009 – 2012 health system reform. J Glob Health. 2011b;1(2):142–7. Epub 1 Dec 2012.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Hipgrave D, Hort K. Will current health reforms in south and east Asia improve equity? Med J Aust. 2014;200(9):514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hipgrave D, Guo S, Mu Y, Guo Y, Yan F, Scherpbier RW, et al. Chinese-style decentralization and health system reform. PLoS Med. 2012;9(11):1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hipgrave DB, Fu X, Zhou H, Jin Y, Wang X, Chang S, et al. Poor complementary feeding practices and high anaemia prevalence among infants and young children in rural central and western China. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014;68:916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ho CS. Health reform and de facto federalism in China. China Int J. 2010;8:33–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ho CS, Gostin LO. The social face of economic growth: China’s health system in transition. JAMA. 2009;301(17):1809–11. Epub 7 May 2009.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Hu S. Financing, pricing and utilisation of pharmaceuticals in China: the road to reform. Beijing: The World Bank East Asia and Pacific Region; 2010. Contract No.: 58410.Google Scholar
  40. Hu G, Baker T, Baker SP. Comparing road traffic mortality rates from police-reported data and death registration data in China. Bull World Health Organ. 2011;89(1):41–5. Epub 25 Feb 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Huang YZ. The sick man of Asia. Foreign Aff. 2011;90:119–36.Google Scholar
  42. Human Rights Watch. “My children have been poisoned”: a public health crisis in four Chinese provinces. New York: Human Rights Watch; 2011.Google Scholar
  43. Jamison DT, Evans JR, King T, Porter I, Prescott N, Prost A. China: the health sector. Washington, DC: The World Bank; 1984.Google Scholar
  44. Kaiman J. Chinese statistics bureau accuses county of faking economic data. The Guardian. 7 Sept 2013.Google Scholar
  45. Li L, Chen Q-L. A rational evaluation of China’s health sector reform over three years. Health Econ Res. 2012;5:7–12.Google Scholar
  46. Liu Y. China’s public health-care system: facing the challenges. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82(7):532–8. Epub 27 Oct 2004.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Liu MD. Sub-provincial intergovernmental fiscal transfers. 2006 Annual China Fiscal Reform Forum. Beijing: UNDP; 2007.Google Scholar
  48. Liu Y, Rao K, Hsiao WC. Medical expenditure and rural impoverishment in China. J Health Popul Nutr. 2003;21(3):216–22. Epub 14 Jan 2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ma XVC. National Commission for Health and Family Planning. Quoted comments given at press conference during 13th National People Congress 2013 (in Chinese). 2013. Available at: Last viewed 24 Oct 2014.
  50. Meng Q, Xu L, Zhang Y, Qian J, Cai M, Xin Y, et al. Trends in access to health services and financial protection in China between 2003 and 2011: a cross-sectional study. Lancet. 2012;379(9818):805–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Millman A, Tang D, Perera FP. Air pollution threatens the health of children in China. Pediatrics. 2008;122(3):620–8. Epub 3 Sept 2008.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Ministry of Health. The National Health Statistics reporting system (in Chinese). Beijing: Chinese Academy of Medical Science; 2007.Google Scholar
  53. Ministry of Health. Report on women and children’s health development in China. Beijing: China Ministry of Health; 2011a.Google Scholar
  54. Ministry of Health. China’s Minister of Health: rural doctors will continue to serve the masses indefinitely (in Chinese). 2011b. Available at: Last viewed 24 Oct 2014.
  55. Ministry of Health. China 2010 health statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Ministry of Health; 2011c.Google Scholar
  56. Ministry of Health. China’s State Council announcement on deepening medical and health system planning and implementation of the program during the 12th Five Year Plan. 2012a. Available at: Last viewed 24 Oct 2014.
  57. Ministry of Health. China health statistics yearbook. Beijing: Chinese Academy of Medical Science; 2012b.Google Scholar
  58. Ministry of Health. Three years of significant progress in health reform (in Chinese). 2012c. Formerly available at: Last viewed 20 Aug 2012 – MoH website now deleted.
  59. Ministry of Health. Health statistical monthly reports. Beijing: Ministry of Health; 2012d.Google Scholar
  60. Ministry of Health Centre for Health Statistics and Information. An analysis report of the fourth national health services survey in China in 2008. Beijing: China Union Medical University Press; 2009.Google Scholar
  61. Mulholland K, Temple B. Causes of death in children younger than 5 years in China in 2008. Lancet. 2010;376(9735):89.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. National Bureau of Statistics. China statistical yearbook (in Chinese). Beijing: National Bureau of Statistics; 2011. Available at: Last viewed 24 Oct 2014.
  63. National Bureau of Statistics. Tabulation of the 2010 population census of People’s Republic of China. Beijing: China Statistics Press; 2012.Google Scholar
  64. National Bureau of Statistics. China statistical yearbooks. Beijing: Published annually; 2016.Google Scholar
  65. OECD. Health at a Glance: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing. 2013.
  66. Osnos E. China’s censored world. New York Times. 2 May 2014.Google Scholar
  67. Pavin M, Nurgozhin T, Hafner G, Yusufy F, Laing R. Prescribing practices of rural primary health care physicians in Uzbekistan. Trop Med Int Health. 2003;8(2):182–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Phillips MR, Zhang J, Shi Q, Song Z, Ding Z, Pang S, et al. Prevalence, treatment, and associated disability of mental disorders in four provinces in China during 2001–05: an epidemiological survey. Lancet. 2009;373(9680):2041–53. Epub 16 June 2009.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Qin X, Wang W, Jin Q, Ai L, Li Y, Dong G, et al. Prevalence and rates of recognition of depressive disorders in internal medicine outpatient departments of 23 general hospitals in Shenyang, China. J Affect Disord. 2008;110(1–2):46–54. Epub 12 Feb 2008.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Rudan I, Chan KY, Zhang JS, Theodoratou E, Feng XL, Salomon JA, et al. Causes of deaths in children younger than 5 years in China in 2008. Lancet. 2010;375(9720):1083–9. Epub 30 Mar 2010.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Schatz G, Nowlin P. Drugs for the masses. China Bus Rev. 2010;2010;22–5.Google Scholar
  72. Seiter A, Wang H, Zhang S. A generic drug policy as a cornerstone to essential medicines in China. 2010. Contract No.: 58413.Google Scholar
  73. Shi LW, Ma YQ, Xu LP, Zhao DH, Zhang Y. Review of adjustment of essential medicine list at provincial level in China. Value Health. 2011;14(3):A14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. State Council. Opinions of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and the State Council on deepening the health care system reform. 2009. Available at: Last viewed 24 Oct 2014.
  75. 'State Council. Opinions on promoting the comprehensive reform of county public hospitals (in Chinese). 2014. Available at: Last viewed 5 July 2014.
  76. Sun X, Jackson S, Carmichael GA, Sleigh AC. Prescribing behaviour of village doctors under China’s New Cooperative Medical Scheme. Soc Sci Med. 2009;68(10):1775–9. Epub 4 Apr 2009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tang S, Meng Q, Chen L, Bekedam H, Evans T, Whitehead M. Tackling the challenges to health equity in China. Lancet. 2008;372(9648):1493–501. Epub 22 Oct 2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tang S, Brixi H, Bekedam H. Advancing universal coverage of healthcare in China: translating political will into policy and practice. Int J Health Plann Manage. 2014a;29(2):160–74. Scholar
  79. Tang C, Zhang Y, Chen L, Lin Y. The growth of private hospitals and their health workforce in China: a comparison with public hospitals. Health Policy Plan. 2014b;29(1):30–41. Scholar
  80. Tangcharoensathien V, Patcharanarumol W, Ir P, Aljunid SM, Mukti AG, Akkhavong K, et al. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage. Lancet. 2011;377(9768):863–73. Epub 29 Jan 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. The World Bank. World development report 2004: making services work for the poor people. Washington, DC: The World Bank; 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. The World Bank Group East Asia Pacific Region. Fixing the public hospital system in China. Washington, DC; 2010. Contract No.: 58411.Google Scholar
  83. The World Bank Human Development Unit. Toward a healthy and harmonious life in China: stemming the rising tide of non-communicable diseases. Washington, DC: The World Bank; 2011.Google Scholar
  84. The World Health Organization. The world health report 2000: health systems: improving performance. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2000.Google Scholar
  85. Tian Y, Hua LJ, Chao WM. Chinese doctors’ salaries. Lancet. 2008;371:1577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Uchimura H, Jütting, J. Fiscal decentralization, Chinese style: good for health outcome? OECD Development Centre Working Paper #264. Paris: OECD; 2007.Google Scholar
  87. UNDP China, China Institute for Reform and Development. China national human development report 2007/2008: access for all: basic public services to benefit 1.3 billion people. Beijing: UNDP; 2008.Google Scholar
  88. Walter CE, Howie F. Red capitalism: the fragile financial foundation of China’s extraordinary rise. Singapore: Wiley; 2011.Google Scholar
  89. Wang J. Evidence-based medicine in China. Lancet. 2010;375(9714):532–3. Epub 18 Feb 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wang H, Xu T, Xu J. Factors contributing to high costs and inequality in China’s health care system. JAMA. 2007;298(16):1928–30. Epub 24 Oct 2007.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Wang L, Wang Y, Jin S, Wu Z, Chin DP, Koplan JP, et al. Emergence and control of infectious diseases in China. Lancet. 2008a;372(9649):1598–605. Epub 22 Oct 2008.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Wang SY, Li YH, Chi GB, Xiao SY, Ozanne-Smith J, Stevenson M, et al. Injury-related fatalities in China: an under-recognised public-health problem. Lancet. 2008b;372(9651):1765–73. Epub 22 Oct 2008.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Wang YP, Miao L, Dai L, Zhou GX, He CH, Li XH, et al. Mortality rate for children under 5 years of age in China from 1996 to 2006. Public Health. 2011;125(5):301–7. Epub 29 Apr 2011.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Wang Y, Zhu J, He C, Li X, Miao L, Liang J. Geographical disparities of infant mortality in rural China. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2012;97(4):F285–90. Epub 17 Jan 2012.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wong C. Public Sector Reforms toward Building the Harmonious Society in China. Paper prepared for the China Economic Research and Advisory Programme. University of Oxford; 2010.Google Scholar
  96. World Bank. China 2030: building a modern, harmonious, and creative high-income society. Washington, DC: The World Bank; 2012.Google Scholar
  97. Wu N, Yang HW. Retrospective evaluation of the achievements of the implementation of essential medicine system in medical reform of past three years. China Pharm. 2013;10(5–6):78–82.Google Scholar
  98. Xiao Y, Zhao K, Bishai DM, Peters DH. Essential drugs policy in three rural counties in China: what does a complexity lens add? Soc Sci Med. 2013;93:220–8. Scholar
  99. Xing L, Fen S, Luo X, Zhang X. Intra rural income disparity in West China. China Econ Q. 2008;1(1):329–50.Google Scholar
  100. Xinhua. China penalizes 113 over chemical tainted pork. China Daily. 26 Nov 2011 10:36.Google Scholar
  101. Xu H, Zhang W, Gu L, Qu Z, Sa Z, Zhang X, et al. Aging village doctors in five counties in rural China: situation and implications. Hum Resour Health. 2014;12:36. Epub 30 June 2014.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Yang DL. The central-local relations dimension. In: Freeman CW, Lu XQ, editors. Implementing health care reform policies in China. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies; 2011. p. 21–9.Google Scholar
  103. Yang ZP, Fan DM. How to solve the crisis behind Bribegate for Chinese doctors. Lancet. 2012;379(9812):e13–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Yang L, Cui Y, Guo S, Brant P, Li B, Hipgrave D. Evaluation, in three provinces, of the introduction and impact of China’s National Essential Medicines Scheme. Bull World Health Organ. 2013a;91:184–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Yang G, Wang Y, Zeng Y, Gao GF, Liang X, Zhou M, et al. Rapid health transition in China, 1990–2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2013b;381(9882):1987–2015. Epub 12 June 2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Yip WC-M, Hsiao WC, Chen W, Hu S, Ma J, Maynard A. Early appraisal of China’s huge and complex health-care reforms. Lancet. 2012;379(9818):833–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Youlong G, Wilkes A, Bloom G. Health human resource development in rural China. Health Policy Plan. 1997;12(4):320–8. Epub 3 Nov 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yu X, Li C, Shi Y, Yu M. Pharmaceutical supply chain in China: current issues and implications for health system reform. Health Policy. 2010;97(1):8–15. Epub 24 Mar 2010.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Zhan SK, Tang SL, Guo YD, Bloom G. Drug prescribing in rural health facilities in China: implications for service quality and cost. Trop Doct. 1998;28(1):42–8. Epub 3 Mar 1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhang W, Navarro V. Why hasn’t China’s high-profile health reform (2003–2012) delivered? An analysis of its neoliberal roots. Crit Soc Policy. 2014;34:175–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zhang J, Zhang X, Qiu L, Zhang R, Hipgrave D, Wang Y, et al. Maternal deaths among rural-urban migrants in China: a case-control study. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:512.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zheng M, Fu Q, Wang X. Comparative study on structural changes in income disparities in urban households in Chongqing Municipality, Shanghai Municipality and Sichuan Province. J Reform Strategy. 2008;5:98–101.Google Scholar
  113. Zhou LA. Reforming China’s local government governance. In: Incentives and governance: China’s local governments. Singapore: Cengage Learning Asia Pte. Ltd.; 2010a.Google Scholar
  114. Zhou LA. Incentives and governance: China’s local governments. Singapore: Cengage Learning Asia Pte. Ltd.; 2010b.Google Scholar
  115. Zhou L, Conner KR, Caine ED, Xiao S, Xu L, Gong Y, et al. Epidemiology of alcohol use in rural men in two provinces of China. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2011;72(2):333–40. Epub 11 Mar 2011.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UNICEFNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Nossal Institute for Global HealthUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.UNICEF ChinaBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations