Geothermal Energy Utilization

  • John W. Lund
Reference work entry
Part of the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Series book series (ESSTS)



The science of the healing qualities of baths, especially with natural mineral waters; the therapeutic use of natural, warm, or mineral waters.

Binary power plant

Used with low-temperature resources (below 150 °C or 300 °F) where a secondary low boiling point working fluid (normally a hydrocarbon) is vaporized by the geothermal fluid through a heat exchanger to drive a turbine producing electricity. Also referred to as an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) machine.


A large basin-shaped volcanic depression, circular in form, with a diameter many times greater than the included volcanic vent usually caused by an explosive volcanic eruption that drains the magma chamber resulting in the collapse of a volcano.


The quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram (g) of water by 1 degree centigrade (°C) at 16 °C. It is equal to 4.185 J.

Cap rock

A comparatively impervious stratum that prevents the circulation of heat or fluid.


The transfer...


Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) (1978) Geothermal energy prospects for the next 50 years. ER-611-SR, Special report for the world energy conference 1978Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cataldi R, Hodgson S, Lund J (eds) (1999) Stories from a heated earth – our geothermal Heritage. Geothermal Resources Council, Davis, p 569Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lund JW (2006) Chena hot springs. Geo-Heat Center Quart Bull 27(3):2–4, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath FallsGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wright M (1998) Nature of geothermal resources. In: Lund JW (ed) Geothermal direct-use engineering and design guidebook. Geo-Heat Center, Klamath Falls, pp 27–69Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    White DE, Williams DL (eds) (1975) Assessment of geothermal resources of the United States – 1975. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 727, U.S. Government Printing Office, 155 pGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tenzer H (2001) Development of hot dry rock technology. Geo-Heat Center Quart Bull 22(4):14–22, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath FallsGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tester JW et al (2006) The future of geothermal energy – impacts of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st century. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 384 pGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lund JW, Freeston DH (2001) World-wide direct uses of geothermal energy 2000. Geothermics 30(1):29–68, Elsevier, Oxford (updated and revised)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lund JW, Freeston DH, Boyd TL (2005) Worldwide direct-uses of geothermal energy 2005. Geothermics 34(6):691–727, Elsevier, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lund JW, Freeston DH, Boyd TL (2011) Direct utilization of geothermal energy 2010 worldwide review. Geothermics 40(2):159–180, Elsevier, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bertani R (2005) World geothermal general 2001–2005 – state of the art. Geothermics 34(6):651–690, Elsevier, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bertani R (2012) Geothermal power generation in the World, 2005–2010 update report. Geothermics 41(1):1–29, Elsevier, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kagel A, Bates D, Gawell K (2005) A guide to geothermal energy and the environment. Geothermal Energy Association, Washington, DC, 75 pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goddard WB, Goddard CB (1990) Energy fuel sources and their contribution to recent global air pollution trends. In: Geothermal resources council transactions, vol 14, Davis, pp 643–649Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bertani R (2015) Geothermal Power Generation in the World 2010-2014 Update Report, World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, International Geothermal Association, 19 pGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lund JW, Boyd TL (2015) Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy 2015 Worldwide Review, World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, International Geothermal Association, 31 pGoogle Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. Armstead HCH (1983) Geothermal energy, 2nd edn. E. & F.N. Spon, London, 404 pGoogle Scholar
  2. Dickson MH, Fanelli M (2003) Geothermal energy utilization and technology. Earthscan, London, 205 pGoogle Scholar
  3. DiPippo R (2012) Geothermal power plants – principles, applications, case studies and environmental impact, 3rd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 624 pGoogle Scholar
  4. Kavanaugh SP, Rafferty K (1997) Ground-source heat pumps – design of geothermal systems for commercial and institutional buildings. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, 167 pGoogle Scholar
  5. Lund JW, Lienau PJ, Lunis BC (1998) Geothermal direct-use engineering and design guidebook, 3rd edn. Geo-Heat Center, Klamath Falls, 454 pGoogle Scholar


  1. European Geothermal Energy Council, Belgium.
  2. Geothermal Education Office, USA.
  3. Geothermal Energy Association, USA.
  4. Geo-Heat Center, USA.
  5. Geothermal Resources Council, USA.
  6. IEA (International Energy Agency) Heat Pump Center, Netherlands.
  7. International Geothermal Association.
  8. International Ground Source Heat Pump Association, USA.
  9. Stanford University Geothermal Program.
  10. U.S. Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies.
  11. World Geothermal Congress 2010, Indonesia.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Emeritus Director, Geo-Heat CenterOregon Institute of TechnologyKlamath FallsUSA

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