Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

Living Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Geothermal Energy, Nature, Use, and Expectations

  • Maciej Lukawski
  • Jefferson W. TesterEmail author
  • Betina Bendall
  • Barry Goldstein
  • Gerardo Hiriart
  • Luis Gutierrez-Negrin
  • Ruggero Bertani
  • Christopher Bromley
  • Ernst Huenges
  • Arni Ragnarsson
  • Mike Mongillo
  • John W. Lund
  • Ladislaus Rybach
  • Vladimir Zui
  • Hirofumi Muraoka
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2493-6_309-3


Base-load demand

Continuous demand for electricity. Power generation plants with high capacity factors combine as a practical source of continuous base-load electricity supplies

Capacity factor

The energy generated in a span of time divided by the maximum energy that could have been generated at full (name plate) power of the plant during that period of time, most often expressed as a percentage of 1 year of plant operation. The maximum amount of power a plant can generate is its name plate capacity

Conduction-dominated systems

Earth systems of heat transfer in which heat flow is principally via the contact of rocks (and pore- and fracture-filling fluids and gasses in rocks) with a capacity to transfer thermal energy from higher to lower temperature conditions. Nonvolcanic (amagmatic) geothermal systems tend to become conduction-dominated systems

Convection-dominated systems

Earth systems of heat transfer in which heat flow is principally via flow of fluids and molten rock...

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The authors thank their international colleagues who have contributed so much of their professional lives and time to provide improved understanding of geothermal systems. We are especially grateful to Graeme Beardsmore, David Blackwell, Lucien Bronicki, Trevor Demayo, Ronald DiPippo, Roland Horne, Arthur Lee, David Newell, Subir Sanyal, Ken Williamson, and Doone Wyborn.


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Copyright information

© @Crown 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maciej Lukawski
    • 1
  • Jefferson W. Tester
    • 1
    Email author
  • Betina Bendall
    • 2
  • Barry Goldstein
    • 2
  • Gerardo Hiriart
    • 3
  • Luis Gutierrez-Negrin
    • 4
  • Ruggero Bertani
    • 5
  • Christopher Bromley
    • 6
  • Ernst Huenges
    • 7
  • Arni Ragnarsson
    • 8
  • Mike Mongillo
    • 6
  • John W. Lund
    • 9
  • Ladislaus Rybach
    • 10
  • Vladimir Zui
    • 11
  • Hirofumi Muraoka
    • 12
  1. 1.Cornell Energy InstituteCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  2. 2.Energy Resources DivisionSouth Australian State GovernmentAdelaideAustralia
  3. 3.Energias Alternas, Estudios y ProyectosCuemavacaMexico
  4. 4.Mexican Geothermal AssociationMorelia CityMexico
  5. 5.Enel Green Power North AmericaPisaItaly
  6. 6.GNS Science, Wairakei Research CentreTaupoNew Zealand
  7. 7.GFZ-PotsdamPotsdamGermany
  8. 8.Iceland GeoSurveyReykjavikIceland
  9. 9.Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of TechnologyKlamath FallsUSA
  10. 10.Geowatt AGZürichSwitzerland
  11. 11.Research-Production Centre for GeologyMinskBelarus
  12. 12.Hirosaki UniversityHirosakiJapan