Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

Living Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Geothermal Resources Worldwide, Direct Heat Utilization of

  • John W. LundEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2493-6_305-3

Definition of the Subject

Direct or nonelectric utilization of geothermal energy refers to the immediate use of the heat energy rather than to its conversion to some other forms such as electrical energy. The primary forms of direct use include heating swimming pools and baths and, for balneology (therapeutic use), space heating and cooling including district heating; agriculture (mainly greenhouse heating, crop drying, and some animal husbandry); aquaculture (mainly fishpond and raceway heating), providing heat for industrial processes; and heat pumps (for both heating and cooling). In general, the geothermal fluid temperatures required for direct heat use are lower than those for economic electric power generation, and as a result these resources are available in most countries.

Most direct use applications use geothermal fluids in the low-to-moderate-temperature range between 50 °C and 150 °C, and in general, the reservoir can be exploited by conventional water well drilling...


Heat Exchanger Heat Pump Instal Capacity Geothermal Energy Geothermal Water 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Primary Literature

  1. 1.
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Books and Reviews

  1. Cataldi R, Hodgson SF, Lund JW (eds) (1999) Stories from a heated earth – our geothermal heritage. International Geothermal Association and the Geothermal Resources Council, Davis, p 569Google Scholar
  2. Kavanaugh SP, Rafferty K (1997) Ground-source heat pumps – design of geothermal systems for commercial and institutional buildings. American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, p 167Google Scholar
  3. Lund JW (1996) Lectures on direct utilization of geothermal energy, United Nations University, Geothermal training program, report 1. Orkustofnun, Reykjavik, 123 pGoogle Scholar
  4. Lund JW, Lienau PJ, Lunis BC (eds) (1998) Geothermal direct-use engineering and design guidebook. Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, p 454Google Scholar


  1. European Geothermal Energy Council, Belgium, www.geothermie.de/egec_geothernet/menu/frameset.htm
  2. Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, http://geoheat.oit.edu
  3. Geothermal Education Office, USA, http://geothermal.marin.org
  4. IEA (International Energy Agency) Heat Pump Center, The Netherlands, www.heatpumpcentre.org
  5. International Ground Source Heat Pump Association, USA, http://www.igshpa.okstate.edu

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Emeritus Director, Geo-Heat CenterOregon Institute of TechnologyKlamath FallsUSA