Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

Living Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Fuel Cell Systems, Total Cost of Ownership

  • Max Wei
  • Ahmad Mayyas
  • Tim Lipman
  • Hanna Breunig
  • Roberto Scataglini
  • Shuk Han Chan
  • Joshua Chien
  • David Gosselin
  • Nadir Saggiorato
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2493-6_1020-1

Glossary

Fuel cell

an electrochemical technology that can produce electricity or heat from a cell or a repeating unit that converts chemical energy from a fuel into electricity.

PEM fuel cell

a type of fuel cell which operates at low temperature (50–100 °C) and has a polymer electrolyte membrane between the cell anode and cathode.

SOFC fuel cell

a type of fuel cell (solid oxide fuel cell) that operates at higher temperatures (500–1000 °C) and which has a solid oxide or ceramic electrolyte.

MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and EEA (electrode electrolyte assembly)

the electrochemical unit cell for PEM and SOFC, respectively, with anode/electrolyte/cathode layer composition specific to each technology.

Fuel cell stack

a collection of unit fuel cells connected in series form a fuel cell stack.

Fuel cell system

a fuel cell stack and associated balance of plant components that together make up an entire system.

Balance of plant

the balance of system components that are needed to form a...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    Darrow K, Tidball R, Wang J, Hampson A (2015) Catalog of CHP technologies. U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Combined heat and power partnership. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-07/documents/catalog_of_chp_technologies.pdf
  2. 2.
    Wei M, Lipman T, Mayyas A, Chien J, Chan SH, Gosselin D, Breunig H, Stadler M, McKone T, Beattie P, Chong P, Colella WG, James BD (2014) A total cost of ownership model for low temperature PEM fuel cells in combined heat and power and backup power, LBNL-6772E. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scataglini R, Mayyas A, Wei M, Chan SH, Lipman T, Gosselin D, D’Alessio A, Breunig H, Colella WG, James BD (2015) A total cost of ownership model for solid oxide fuel cells in combined heat and power and power-only applications. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report LBNL-1005725Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Colella WG (2003) Modelling results for the thermal management sub-system of a combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell system (FCS). J Power Sources 118:129–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ormerod RM (2003) Solid oxide fuel cells. Chem Soc Rev 32:17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    DOE (2014) – Multi-year research, development and demonstration plan. http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/12/f19/fcto_myrdd_fuel_cells.pdf
  7. 7.
    James BD, Kalinoski JA, Baum KN (2010) Mass production cost estimation for direct H2 PEM fuel cell systems for automotive applications, 2010 Update. Directed Technologies, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sinha J (2010) Direct hydrogen PEMFC manufacturing cost estimation for automotive applications, 2010 DOE annual merit review, Washington, DC, 9 June 2010. Project ID # FC019Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marcinkoski J, James BD, Kalinoski JA, Podolski W, Benjamin T, Kopasz J (2011) Manufacturing process assumptions used in fuel cell system cost analyses. J Power Sources 196(12):5282–5292. ISSN 0378-7753,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.02.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mahadevan, K, Contini V, Goshe M, Price J, Eubanks F, Griesemer F (2010) Economic analysis of stationary PEM fuel cell systems. In: 2010 annual merit review proceedings, Department of energy, hydrogen and fuel cells program, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    James BD, Spisak AB, Colella WG (2012) Manufacturing cost analysis of stationary fuel cell systems. Strategic Analysis, Inc, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krullam K, Iyengar A, Keairns D, Newby D (2013) Assessment of the distributed generation market potential for solid oxide fuel cells, DOE/NETL-342/093013Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Staffell I, Green R (2013) The cost of domestic fuel cell micro-CHP systems. Intl J Hydrogen Energy 38:1088–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    E4tech (2014) The fuel cell industry review 2014. Available at 727 http://www.e4tech.com/fuelcellindustryreview/. Accessed on 10 Dec 2015
  15. 15.
    Wei M, Smith SJ, Sohn MD (2017) Experience curve development and cost reduction disaggregation for fuel cell markets in Japan and the US. Appl Energy 191(1):346–357. ISSN 0306-2619,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.01.056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Haberl JS (1993) Economic calculations for ASHRAE handbook. Texas A&M University. [Report Number:] EST-TR-93-04-07, Energy Systems Laboratory, College Station, TexasGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Deru M, Field K, Studer D, Benne K, Griffith B, Torcellini P, Liu B, Halverson M, Winiarski D, Rosenberg M, Yazdanian M, Huang J, Crawley D (2011) U.S. Department of energy commercial reference building models of the national building stock. Report NREL/TP-5500-46861, Golden CO, pp 1–118Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rooijen JV A life cycle assessment of the PureCell™ stationary fuel cell system: providing a guide for environmental improvement. A report of the Center for Sustainable Systems, Report No. CSS06–09. 30 June 2006 Salt River Project. http://www.srpnet.com/about/facts.aspx#ownership. Accessed Aug 2013
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
    Muller NZ (2014) Toward the measurement of net economic welfare: air pollution damage in the U.S. national accounts–2002, 2005, 2008. In: Jorgenson DW, Landefeld JS, Schreyer P (eds) Measuring economic sustainability and progress volume. University of Chicago Press, pp 429–459Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    EPA (2015) eGRID 2012 summary tables, 5 Oct 2015Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    U.S. Energy Information Agency (EIA) (2011) Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases program. Emission factors and global warming potentials. http://www.eia.gov/survey/form/eia_1605/emission_factors.html. Accessed Aug 2013, Revised 28 Apr 2011
  23. 23.
    U.S. Energy Information Agency (EIA). Total district heat consumption and expenditures. Table C25. Table 1.3–1 and 1.3–4. http://www.eia.gov/. Accessed Sep 2013
  24. 24.
    Siler-Evans K, Lima Azevedo I, Morgan MG (2012) Marginal emissions factors for the U.S. electricity system. Environ Sci Technol 46:4742–4748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Barbose G, Wiser R, Heeter J, Mai T, Bird L, Bolinger M, Carpenter A, Heath G, Keyser D, Macknick J, Mills A, Millstein D (2016) A retrospective analysis of benefits and impacts of U.S. renewable portfolio standards. Energy Policy 96:645–660. ISSN 0301-4215,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2016.06.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Colella WG, Pilli SP (2012) Energy system and thermo-economic analysis of combined heat and power fuel cell systems. In: Proceedings of the ASME 6th international conference on energy sustainability, San Diego, 23–25 July 2012. ESFuelCell2012–91481Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) (2009) Natural gas-fueled distributed generation solid oxide fuel cell systems. Report Number: R102 04 2009/1Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    White House (2013) Technical support document: technical update of the social cost of carbon for regulatory impact analysis – under executive order 12866 – interagency working group on social cost of carbon, United States Government, May 2013Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    EPA (2015) Regulatory impact analysis for the Clean Power Plan final rule, 23 Oct 2016Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    EPA (2015) Clean Power Plan fact sheet. http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/blog/fs-cpp-ee.pdf. Accessed 20 June 2017
  31. 31.
    Siler-Evans K, Azevedo IL, Morgan MG, Apt J (2013) Regional variations in the health, environmental, and climate benefits of wind and solar generation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110:11768–11773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nishizaki K, Hirai K (2009) Commercialization of residential PEM fuel cell CHP “ENE FARM”, White paper by Tokyo Gas Co. and Osaka Gas Co.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    ACI Technologies, Inc. (2011) Manufacturing fuel cell Manhattan project, Report under U.S. government contract no. N00014–08-D-0758Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Prugh DN, Tannenbaum HP (2009) U.S. Patent, US 20090169950Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Heinzel A et al (2004) Injection moulded low cost bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells. J Power Sources 131(1):35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yeetsorn R, Fowler M, Tzoganakis C, Yuhua W, Taylor M (2008) Polypropylene composites for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plates. Macromol Symp 264:34–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yeetsorn R, Fowler M, Tzoganakis C (2011) A review of thermoplastic composites for bipolar plate materials in PEM fuel cells, Chapter 16. In: Cuppoletti J (ed) Nanocomposites with unique properties and applications in medicine and industry. InTech, RijekaGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chien JM (2013) Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Incropera FP, DeWitt DP, Bergman TL, Lavine AS (2007) Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.03.022 Google Scholar
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
    Stevenson J (2003) Paper presented at the SOFC seal meeting, SECA core technology program. Sandia National Laboratory, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
  43. 43.
    Ghezel Ayagh H (2014) Paper presented at the 15th annual SECA workshop, National energy technology laboratory, PittsburghGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Borglum B (2008) Development of solid oxide fuel cells at Versa Power Systems. In: Williams M, Krist K, Garland N (eds) ECS transactions, fuel cell seminar 2008. The electrochemical society, Pennington, pp 9–13Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Carlson EJ, Yang Y, Fulton C (2004) Tiax report for national energy technology laboratoryGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    H.K. Woodward (2003) M.S. Thesis, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, WorcesterGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schafbauer W, Menzler NH, Buchkremer HP (2014) Tape casting of anode supports for solid oxide fuel cells at Forschungszentrum Jülich. Intl J App Ceramic Tech 11:125–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Thorel A (2010) Tape casting ceramics for high temperature fuel cell applications. In: Wunderlich W (ed) Ceramic materials. InTech, Rijeka, pp 49–67Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Liu Q L et al (2011) IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 18 132006.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/18/13/132006
  50. 50.
    Mistler RE, Runk RB, Shanefield DJ (1978) Tape casting of ceramics. In: Onoda GY, Hench LL (eds) Ceramic processing before firing. Wiley, New York, pp 411–448Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Battelle Memorial Institute (2014) Report for U.S. Department of energy under Contract No. DE-EE0005250Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Burggraaf AJ, Cot L (1996) Fundamentals of inorganic membrane science and technology. Elsevier, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Weimar MR, Gotthold DW, Chick LA, Whyatt GA (2013) Cost study for manufacturing of solid oxide fuel cell power systems, PNNL-22732. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, RichlandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Breunig HM (2015) Parameter variation and scenario analysis in impact assessments of emerging energy technologies. University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar

Reviews and Other References

  1. Bar-On I, Kirchain R, Roth R (2002) Technical cost analysis for PEM fuel cells. J Power Sources 109:71–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Mehta V, Cooper JS (2003) Review and analysis of PEM fuel cell design and manufacturing. J Power Sources 114:32–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Sopian K, Wan Daud WR (2006) Challenges and future developments in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Renew Energy 31:719–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Tietz F, Buchkremer HP, Stöver D (2002) Components manufacturing for solid oxide fuel cells. Solid State Ionics 152–153:373–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Verrey J, Wakeman MD, Michaud V, Månson J-AE (2006) Manufacturing cost comparison of thermoplastic and thermoset RTM for an automotive floor pan. Compos A: Appl Sci Manuf 37:9–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Wannek C, Glüsen A, Stolten D (2010) Materials, manufacturing technology and costs of fuel cell membranes. Desalination 250:1038–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Max Wei
    • 1
  • Ahmad Mayyas
    • 2
  • Tim Lipman
    • 2
  • Hanna Breunig
    • 1
  • Roberto Scataglini
    • 1
  • Shuk Han Chan
    • 3
  • Joshua Chien
    • 3
  • David Gosselin
    • 3
  • Nadir Saggiorato
    • 1
  1. 1.Sustainable Energy Systems Group, Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Department, Environmental Energy Technologies DivisionLawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil Engineering, Transportation Sustainability Research CenterUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Adam Z. Weber
    • 1
  1. 1.Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA