Encyclopedia of AIDS

Living Edition
| Editors: Thomas J. Hope, Douglas Richman, Mario Stevenson

Role of Histone Deacetylases 1 and Yin Yang 1 Protein in Proviral Latency

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9610-6_73-1


HDAC1 is a member of the HDAC family of proteins, whereas YY1 is a ubiquitously expressed transcriptional factor with both repressive and activating functions. Cooperatively, these two proteins have been shown to repress transcription from the viral LTR promoter and have been proposed to contribute to the state of post-integration latency.


After the integration into the host cell chromatin, the HIV-1 genome can be reversibly silenced through multiple mechanisms, establishing a state of post-integration latency. Although different posttranscriptional mechanisms participate in maintaining the latent state, it is usually a block at the transcriptional level that gives a major contribution to the establishment of latency (Lusic and Giacca 2014).

The establishment of latency, according to a now prevailing theory, foresees the infection of activated CD4+T cells prior to their natural reversion to a quiescent memory state; this is also compatible with the finding...


Long Terminal Repeat Viral Promoter Long Terminal Repeat Promoter Proviral Latency Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter Transcription Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Allouch A, Di Primio C, Alpi E, Lusic M, Arosio D, Giacca M, Cereseto A. The TRIM family protein KAP1 inhibits HIV-1 integration. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:484–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Atchison ML. Function of YY1 in long-distance DNA interactions. Front Immunol. 2014;5:45.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barton K, Margolis D. Selective targeting of the repressive transcription factors YY1 and cMyc to disrupt quiescent human immunodeficiency viruses. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013;29:289–98.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernhard W, Barreto K, Raithatha S, Sadowski I. An upstream YY1 binding site on the HIV-1 LTR contributes to latent infection. PLoS One. 2013;8:e77052.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Colin L, Van Lint C. Molecular control of HIV-1 postintegration latency: implications for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Retrovirology. 2009;6:111.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Coull JJ, Romerio F, Sun JM, Volker JL, Galvin KM, Davie JR, Shi Y, Hansen U, Margolis DM. The human factors YY1 and LSF repress the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat via recruitment of histone deacetylase 1. J Virol. 2000;74:6790–9.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dieudonne M, Maiuri P, Biancotto C, Knezevich A, Kula A, Lusic M, Marcello A. Transcriptional competence of the integrated HIV-1 provirus at the nuclear periphery. EMBO J. 2009;28:2231–43.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lusic M, Giacca M (2014) Regulation of HIV-1 latency by chromatin structure and nuclear architecture. J Mol Biol 427(3):688–694. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2014.07.022. [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  9. Margolis DM, Somasundaran M, Green MR. Human transcription factor YY1 represses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription and virion production. J Virol. 1994;68:905–10.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Moser MA, Hagelkruys A, Seiser C. Transcription and beyond: the role of mammalian class I lysine deacetylases. Chromosoma. 2014;123:67–78.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ott M, Geyer M, Zhou Q. The control of HIV transcription: keeping RNA polymerase II on track. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;10:426–35.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Romerio F, Gabriel MN, Margolis DM. Repression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 through the novel cooperation of human factors YY1 and LSF. J Virol. 1997;71:9375–82.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Shi Y, Lee JS, Galvin KM. Everything you have ever wanted to know about Yin Yang 1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1332:F49–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Shirakawa K, Chavez L, Hakre S, Calvanese V, Verdin E. Reactivation of latent HIV by histone deacetylase inhibitors. Trends Microbiol. 2013;21:277–85.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Siliciano RF, Greene WC. HIV latency. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2011;1:a007096.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Verdin E, Paras Jr P, Van Lint C. Chromatin disruption in the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 during transcriptional activation. EMBO J. 1993;12:3249–59.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Infectious Diseases, Integrative VirologyUniversity Hospital Heidelberg and German Centre for Infection ResearchHeidelbergGermany