HIV Reservoirs in the Central Nervous System
The central nervous system (CNS) is a unique anatomical compartment that is shielded from the rest of the body by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Exchange of substances between the CNS and the blood is controlled and limited by the BBB. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters the CNS early after viral transmission and, in some cases, replicates independently of that in the blood. Viral replication in the CNS could be supported in multiple cell types including CD4+ T cells, macrophages, microglia, and potentially astrocytes or other cells lacking CD4 receptor expression. Following productive infection of permissive cells, it is plausible that viral species persist in the CNS in the form of a reservoir, or dormant state of infection that is capable of reactivation and production of new viral particles. Analyzing such a reservoir in the context of the CNS is challenging, given the fact that brain tissue can only be sampled at death. Yet, studies using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
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