Encyclopedia of AIDS

Living Edition
| Editors: Thomas J. Hope, Douglas Richman, Mario Stevenson

M. avium Complex and Other Nontuberculous Mycobacteria and HIV

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9610-6_411-1

Mycobacterium avium Complex


Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) comprises two closely related acid-fast bacteria, M. avium and M. intracellulare. The most common clinical presentation of disease due to these organisms in adults is infection of the respiratory tract, primarily seen in immunocompetent individuals with underlying chronic pulmonary disease, while disseminated infection is primarily a complication of advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although the incidence of disseminated MAC infection (dMAC) has declined significantly with the widespread use of potent combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), it still remains an important complication of advanced HIV infection.


Mycobacterium aviumcomplex organisms are thought to have little virulence in the normal host, and prior to the onset of the HIV epidemic had mostly been recognized as a cause of localized pneumonia in persons with chronic pulmonary disease. Reports of dMAC infection were...


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Mycobacterium Avium Complex Primary Prophylaxis 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of MedicineThe University of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA