HIV “Auxiliary” Proteins
In addition to gag, pol, and env, HIV and SIV genomes contain additional genes (tat, rev, vif, vpr, vpx, vpu, and nef) encoding for regulatory proteins. While Tat and Rev are required both in vitro and in vivo for virus replication, the Vif, Vpr, Vpx, Vpu, and Nef “auxiliary” proteins are usually dispensable for virus growth in vitro, but these auxiliary proteins play essential roles in vivo for virus replication and AIDS pathogenesis through interaction and perturbations of cellular pathways and functions in HIV target cells.
The genome of human lentiviruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) contains more genes than the usual gag, pol, and env genes common to all retroviruses. Indeed, HIV-1 contains additional open reading frames called tat, rev, vif, vpr, vpu, and nef encoding for small regulatory proteins, while the HIV-2 genome has an additional vpr-related vpx gene but usually no vpu. While Tat and Rev proteins are absolutely required both in vitro and in vivo for virus...
KeywordsNuclear Pore Complex APOBEC3 Protein Cytidine Deaminase Activity Cytidine Deamination Cellular Restriction Factor
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