Pregnant Women: Care and Treatment
Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in Women
HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global cause of morbidity and mortality in women. In 2011, more than 50 % of the 34 million people infected with HIV were women (UNAIDS/WHO 2012). HIV/AIDS is the major cause of death in women of childbearing age (ages 15–49) in the developing world. The primary mode of HIV transmission in women in the United States and globally is heterosexual contact. In 2013, there were 24.7 million people living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, the global region that accounts for approximately 70 % of HIV/AIDS cases, and 58 % of those were women. In the United States, women accounted for approximately 24 % of new diagnoses of AIDS in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control 2014), and there were over 270,000 women among the 1.1 million people living with HIV infection and AIDS in the United States as of 2013. With the increase in access to potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) in developing countries, the rates of perinatal infection...
KeywordsAlkaloid Lamivudine Zidovudine Ritonavir Mastitis
- Centers for Disease Control. Monitoring selected national HIV prevention and care objectives by using HIV surveillance data – United States and 6 dependent areas – 2012. HIV Surveill Suppl Rep. 2014;19(3):1–61.Google Scholar
- Cohn SE, Clark RA. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in women. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, editors. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2015.Google Scholar
- Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for use of antiretroviral drugs in HIV-1-infected women for maternal health and interventions to reduce perinatal HIV transmission in the United States. 2014. Available at http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/PerinatalGL.pdf. Accessed 15 Feb 2015.
- The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1--a meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies. The International Perinatal HIV Group. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:977–87.Google Scholar
- UNAIDS. Countdown to zero: global plan for the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive, 2011–2015. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2011.Google Scholar
- UNAIDS/WHO. UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2012. 2012. Available at http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassests/documents/epidemiology/2012/gr2012/20121120_UNAIDS_Global_Report_2012_en.pdf. Accessed 15 Feb 2015.
- WHO/UNICEF. Guidelines on HIV and infant feeding. 2010. Available at http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/files/HIV_and_IF_guidelines_and_summary_of_evidence_2010.pdf. Accessed 15 Feb 2015.
- World Health Organization. Antiretroviral drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infection in infants. 2010. Available at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241599818_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 15 Feb 2015.
- World Health Organization. Programmatic update: use of antiretroviral drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infection in infants. 2012. Available at www.who.int/hiv/PMTCT_update.pdf. Accessed 15 Feb 2015.
- World Health Organization. Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection. 2013. Available at http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/85321/1/9789241505727_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 15 Feb 2015.