Encyclopedia of AIDS

Living Edition
| Editors: Thomas J. Hope, Douglas Richman, Mario Stevenson

Neurocognitive Outcomes in HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9610-6_221-1


Perinatally acquired HIV (PAH) infection was first described in 1981. Within a short time, it became clear that, as with adults, PAH could lead to devastating central nervous system damage in infants and children. Through the early years of the epidemic it also became clear that many infected infants had more subtle static neurocognitive deficits and behavioral disorders.

With the advent of effective antiretroviral therapies and earlier initiation of therapy for infected children, the incidence of more serious HIV-related neurocognitive effects decreased dramatically, and they are rarely seen today. In regions with access to effective pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART), the vast majority of youth with PAH have learning and behavioral profiles similar to age and sociodemographically matched uninfected youth. With the ability now to achieve lifelong control of the infection, the hope is to develop treatment strategies that best ensure optimal long-term neurocognitive and...


Cognitive Outcome Quinolinic Acid Cerebral Atrophy Neurocognitive Outcome Basal Ganglion Calcification 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of General PediatricsChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA