NKT Cells: Bridging Innate and Adaptive Immunity
Invariant natural killer T-cells (iNKTs) are an innate T-cell subset unique in their possession of an invariant T-cell Receptor (TCR) and nonclassical antigen presentation mechanism through the CD1d molecule. iNKTs recognize glycolipids presented on the nonpolymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like CD1d molecule, unlike conventional T-cells which recognize peptides presented on MHC class I/II molecules. iNKTs can rapidly produce multiple cytokines in response to activation. This rapid cytokine production allows iNKTs to be powerful modulators of the immune response. iNKTs can produce T-helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cytokines depending on stimulus strength, type of stimulation, iNKT subset, and presenting cell type. As a result, iNKTs are able to affect and modulate immune responses to a variety of diseases, both chronic and infectious – including a potentially important role in controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The ability of...
KeywordsArthritis Influenza Interferon Sponge Ceramide
- Looringh van Beeck FA, Reinink P, Hermsen R, Zajonc DM, Laven MJ, Fun A, Troskie M, Schoemaker NJ, Morar D, Lenstra JA, Vervelde L, Rutten VP, van Eden W, Van Rhijn I. Functional CD1d and/or NKT cell invariant chain transcript in horse, pig, African elephant and guinea pig, but not in ruminants. Mol Immunol. 2009;46(7):1424–31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Sandberg JK, Fast NM, Palacios EH, Fennelly G, Dobroszycki J, Palumbo P, Wiznia A, Grant RM, Bhardwaj N, Rosenberg MG, Nixon DF. Selective loss of innate CD4(+) V alpha 24 natural killer T cells in human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Virol. 2002;76(15):7528–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar