HIV-1 Mutational Escape from Host Immunity
Within an infected individual, HIV-1 develops specific mutations within its genome that allow it to escape detection by host immune responses. As such, host immunity represents a major selective force driving the evolution and diversification of HIV-1 at the individual and population levels. Here, we highlight HIV-1 mutational escape from adaptive, innate, and vaccine-induced immune responses as highly specific and reproducible processes beginning rapidly following HIV-1 infection. The potential biological implications of immune escape, including viral fitness costs and population-level HIV-1 adaptation to host immunity, are also summarized.
Escape from CD8+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes
CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) (HIV & SIV, CD8 T Cell Responses) eliminate HIV-infected cells via the recognition of short, virus-derived peptide epitopes that are produced within the infected cell and presented at its surface by the highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I...
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