Encyclopedia of AIDS

Living Edition
| Editors: Thomas J. Hope, Douglas Richman, Mario Stevenson

Surveillance Case Definition

  • Mary Lou Lindegren
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9610-6_170-1


Surveillance is the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on cases of disease for use in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice. HIV/AIDS surveillance data are used to monitor the spread of HIV infection, to target HIV prevention and health-care services, and to allocate funding for HIV prevention and care.

AIDS Surveillance

Since the first cases of AIDS were reported in 1981, population-based AIDS surveillance has been used to track the magnitude of the HIV epidemic. State governments are the legal entities responsible for collection of surveillance data on cases of infectious diseases, including AIDS. By the end of 1983, most of the 50 states had enacted laws making AIDS a reportable public health condition (IOM 1986). State and local health departments collect information on AIDS cases from physicians, hospitals, clinics, laboratory reporting, HIV counseling and testing sites, and medical record reviews in a...


Case Definition Antenatal Care Attendee Surveillance Case Definition Medical Monitoring Project Territorial Epidemiologist 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Blair JM, et al. Behavioral and clinical characteristics of persons receiving medical care for HIV infection – Medical Monitoring Project, United States, 2009. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2014;63(Suppl 5):1–22.Google Scholar
  2. Bowen GS, et al. First year of AIDS services delivery under Title I of the Ryan White CARE Act. Public Health Rep. 1992;107(5):491–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. CDC. Kaposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men – New York City and California. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1981a;30(25):305–8.Google Scholar
  4. CDC. Pneumocystis pneumonia – Los Angeles. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1981b;30(21):250–2.Google Scholar
  5. CDC. Update on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) – United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1982;31(37):507–8, 513–4.Google Scholar
  6. CDC. Revision of the case definition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome for national reporting – United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1985;34(25):373–5.Google Scholar
  7. CDC. Classification system for human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus infections. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1986;35(20):334–9.Google Scholar
  8. CDC. Revision of the surveillance case definition for acquired immunodeficiency syndrom. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1987;36(Suppl 1):1S–15S.Google Scholar
  9. CDC. 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1992;41(RR-17):1–19.Google Scholar
  10. CDC. Update: impact of the expanded AIDS surveillance case definition for adolescents and adults on case reporting – United States, 1993. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1994a;43(9):160–1, 167–70.Google Scholar
  11. CDC. 1994 revised classification system for human immunodeficiency virus infection in children less than 13 years of age. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1994b;43(RR-12):1–10.Google Scholar
  12. CDC. Update: trends in AIDS incidence – United States, 1996. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1997;46(37):861–7.Google Scholar
  13. CDC. Guidelines for national human immunodeficiency virus case surveillance, including monitoring for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1999;48(RR-13):1–27, 29–31.Google Scholar
  14. CDC. Revised surveillance case definitions for HIV infection among adults, adolescents, and children aged <18 months and for HIV infection and AIDS among children aged 18 months to <13 years – United States, 2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57(RR-10):1–8.Google Scholar
  15. CDC. Vital signs: HIV prevention through care and treatment – United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011a;60(47):1618–23.Google Scholar
  16. CDC. HIV surveillance, US, 1981–2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011b;60(21):689–93.Google Scholar
  17. CDC. HIV infection and risk, prevention, and testing behaviors among injecting drug users – National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 20 U.S. Cities, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014a;63(ss06):1–51.Google Scholar
  18. CDC. Revised surveillance case definition for HIV infection, US, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014b;63(3).Google Scholar
  19. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, C. National HIV surveillance: addition to the National Public Health Surveillance System. In 1997 CSTE Annual Meeting, Atlanta. 1997.Google Scholar
  20. Gostin LO, Hodge Jr JG, Valdiserri RO. Informational privacy and the public’s health: the Model State Public Health Privacy Act. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(9):1388–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Hall HI, et al. Estimation of HIV incidence in the United States. JAMA. 2008;300(5):520–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. IOM. Confronting AIDS: directions for public health, health care, and research. 1986.Google Scholar
  23. McKinney MM, et al. States’ responses to Title II of the Ryan White CARE Act. Public Health Rep. 1993;108(1):4–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Nakashima AK, et al. Effect of HIV reporting by name on use of HIV testing in publicly funded counseling and testing programs. JAMA. 1998;280(16):1421–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. WHO. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. 1987 Revision of WHO/CDC case definition for AIDS. In Weekly epidemiological record. 1988. p. 1–8.Google Scholar
  26. WHO. WHO case definitions for AIDS surveillance in adults and adolescents. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 1994;69(37):273–5.Google Scholar
  27. WHO. WHO case definitions of HIV for surveillance and revised clinical staging and immunological classification of HIV-related disease in adults and children. Geneva: WHO Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  28. WHO. Surveillance of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: a comprehensive package. Geneva: WHO Press; 2013.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics and the Department of Health PolicyVanderbilt Institute for Global HealthNashvilleUSA