Encyclopedia of AIDS

Living Edition
| Editors: Thomas J. Hope, Douglas Richman, Mario Stevenson

HIV-1 Transmission: Influence of Bodily Secretions

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9610-6_136-1


HIV-1 transmission via sexual intercourse or mother to child transmission (MTCT) requires the passage of virus across a mucosal barrier. The exceptions are exposure via direct injection of virus into the bloodstream through either the administration of contaminated blood or blood products or intravenous drug use (IVDU) with needle sharing. In all transmission cases, a distinctive group of viruses are transmitted and which exclusively utilize, in conjunction with CD4, the CCR5 chemokine receptor for entry (R5 viruses). In some individuals, the virus will evolve to utilize the CXCR4 chemokine receptor (R5/X4 and X4 variants) during disease course and where the switch has been associated with increased viral loads, accelerated CD4 declines, and faster rates of disease progression. Understanding what restricts the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and which host factors contribute to the R5 to X4 switch is poorly understood and remains one of the major questions to be...


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and ImmunologyInstitute of Infection and Global Health, University of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK