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Spinal Cord Infarction and Differential Diagnosis

  • Srikanth R. Boddu
  • Alessandro Cianfoni
  • Kyung-Wha Kim
  • Mohammad Amin Banihashemi
  • Emanuele Pravatà
  • Y. Pierre Gobin
  • Athos Patsalides
Reference work entry

Abstract

Spinal cord infarction is a rare disease and constitutes one of the acute spinal emergencies. In comparison to its cerebral counterpart, the spinal cord infarction has extremely low incidence, possibly related to the abundance of the arterial anastomosis and low incidence of the atherosclerosis in the spinal arteries. Since the first spinal cord infarction reported in early nineteenth century, there has been remarkable progress in the understanding of this disease entity. However, the fact that there is no established standard of care treatment as of today highlights the complexity and challenging nature of this disease. In this chapter the arterial anatomy of the spinal cord, etiopathogenesis, and clinical presentation of the cord infarction with specific emphasis on the imaging findings and differential diagnosis are discussed. The role of catheter angiography was specifically addressed along with the merits and pitfalls of the noninvasive angiography. The chapter concludes a discussion on the current and potential future treatment strategies.

Keywords

Watershed territory Thrombolysis Myelitis Infarction Digital subtraction angiography Embolization Signal-to-noise ratio Diffusion-weighted imaging Fast spin echo Gradient echo Diffusion tensor imaging Fiber tractography Echo-planar imaging Apparent diffusion coefficient Anterior spinal artery Posterior spinal artery Segmental artery Radicular artery Artery of Adamkiewicz Multiple sclerosis Neuromyelitis optica Idiopathic transverse myelitis Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis Acute polyneuropathy Subacute combined degeneration Neurosarcoidosis Neuro-Behcet’s disease AIDS-associated myelopathy Radiation myelitis 

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Suggested Reading

  1. Krings T, Geibprasert S (2009) Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 30(4):639–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  7. Saindane AM, Boddu SR, Tong FC, Dehkharghani S, Dion JE (2014) Contrast-enhanced time-resolved MRA for pre-angiographic evaluation of suspected spinal dural arterial venous fistulas. J Neurointerv Surg 7:135–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Srikanth R. Boddu
    • 1
  • Alessandro Cianfoni
    • 2
  • Kyung-Wha Kim
    • 3
  • Mohammad Amin Banihashemi
    • 1
  • Emanuele Pravatà
    • 4
  • Y. Pierre Gobin
    • 1
  • Athos Patsalides
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurological SurgeryWeill Cornell Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA
  3. 3.New York Presbyterian HospitalWeill Cornell Medical College of Cornell UniversityNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Neuroradiology DepartmentNeurocenter of Italian SwitzerlandLuganoSwitzerland

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