Encyclopedia of Malaria

Living Edition
| Editors: Peter G. Kremsner, Sanjeev Krishna

Pre-erythrocytic Immunity in Malaria

  • Urszula Krzych
  • Stasya Zarling
  • Alexander V. Pichugin
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8757-9_137-1



The types and specificities of immune responses that arise in mammalian hosts to Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of malaria, are closely linked to the unique antigens (Ags) expressed during the different stages of parasite development as well as the different organs where development occurs. Plasmodium parasite development in the mammalian host consists of two distinct phases: the asymptomatic preerythrocytic (PE) and the symptomatic erythrocytic phase. The PE phase starts with the introduction of sporozoites into the skin of a host during a blood meal of a Plasmodium-infected mosquito and continues during sporozoites migration via blood or lymphatic vessels to infect the liver. In the liver, the sporozoites undergo liver-stage (LS) parasite development that is marked by the expression of novel Ags and initial rounds of nuclear division. The erythrocytic phase commences with the egress of mature LS parasites as merosomes from the liver into the blood stream...

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The authors would like to express their thanks to all the members of the Krzych lab for their valuable discussions, Isaac Chalom for the many years of working in the Krzych lab, and Abby London for proofreading the manuscript. The US Army Materiel Command supported this work. The views of the authors do not reflect the position of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Urszula Krzych
    • 1
  • Stasya Zarling
    • 1
  • Alexander V. Pichugin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cellular Immunology, Malaria Vaccine BranchWalter Reed Army Institute of ResearchSilver SpringUSA