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Pediatric ICU and Nutritional Assessments

  • Rubens Feferbaum
  • Patrícia Zamberlan
Living reference work entry

Abstract

The nutritional assessment of children in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is unique in view of the metabolic changes of the underlying disease. The presence of inflammatory activity leads to body composition changes (lean mass reduction) and undernutrition. Nutritional assessment is one of the main aspects of the pediatric intensive care patient and is the most important tool to avoid hospital undernutrition. It must prioritize anthropometric and laboratory markers that can differentiate body composition to detect specific macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies and assessment of the inflammatory activity. There is currently no gold standard for nutritional assessment in the PICU. The results of anthropometric and laboratory markers must be jointly analyzed but individually interpreted according to disease and metabolic changes, in order to reach a correct diagnosis of the nutritional status and to plan and monitor the nutritional treatment.

Keywords

Body Composition Nutritional Status Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Nutritional Assessment Anthropometric Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations

AAP

American Academy of Pediatrics

AC

Arm circumference

AFA

Arm fat area

AGA

Appropriate for gestational age

AMA

Arm muscle area

ARA

Arachidonic acid

BMI/A

Body mass index for age

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

DRI

Dietary Reference Intakes

ELBW

Extremely low birth weight

ESPEN

European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

ESPGHAN

European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization

GA

Gestational age

H

Height

H/A

Height for age

HC

Head circumference

ICU

Intensive care unit

L

Length

LBW

Low birth weight

MUAC

Mid-upper arm circumference

PICU

Pediatric intensive care unit

SGA

Small for gestational age

TST

Triceps skinfold thickness

VLBW

Very low birth weight

W

Weight

W/A

Weight for age

W/H

Weight for height

WB

Weight birth

WHO

World Health Organization

Z

Score Z

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Neonatology, Department of PediatricsUniversidade de Sao PauloSao PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Division of NutritionNutritional Team of Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São PauloSao PauloBrazil

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