Nutrition Support for the Critically Ill Infant Post-Cardiac Surgery

Living reference work entry


The incidence of congenital heart disease is approximately 12 per 1,000 newborns in North America. Failure to thrive is prevalent in infants who suffer from congenital heart disease and congestive heart failure. The postoperative clinical course of these infants along with persistent inflammatory catabolic periods contributes to the loss of lean body mass affecting both immune status and hospital outcomes. Prolonged, cumulative caloric and protein deficits occur both before and after staged multiple surgeries with the potential to affect long-term neurological and developmental outcomes. The goal is to match energy expenditure to the energy provided throughout a complex stay. Indirect calorimetry is essential for individualized nutrition prescription as metabolic dysregulation and clinical circumstance vary greatly between children and over the course of each child’s illness. This prescription may involve both enteral and parenteral nutrition and incorporate distinct doses of macro- and micronutrients.


Congenital Heart Disease Enteral Nutrition Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Total Parenteral Nutrition Nutrition Support 
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List of Abbreviations


Atrial septal defect


Atrioventricular canal defect


Congenital heart disease


Congestive heart failure


Cardiopulmonary bypass


Continuous renal replacement therapy


Enteral nutrition


Failure to thrive


Glucose infusion rate


Hypoplastic left heart syndrome


Indirect calorimetry


Intravenous lipid emulsion


Length of stay


Measured resting energy expenditure


Necrotizing enterocolitis


Peritoneal dialysis


Patent ductus arteriosus


Pediatric intensive care unit


Resting energy expenditure


Systemic inflammatory response syndrome


Total parenteral nutrition


Ventricular septal defect


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NICU and PICUStollery Children’s HospitalEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Nutrition Services, Alberta Health ServicesEdmontonCanada

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