GlutamineSupplementation in Multiple Trauma and Critical Illness

  • Ruqaiya M. Al Balushi
  • Jennifer D. Paratz
  • Jeremy Cohen
  • Merrilyn Banks
Living reference work entry


Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body and has been considered nonessential in the past because it can be synthesized de novo. However, during stress and catabolic conditions such as multiple trauma and critical illness, the demand for glutamine increases and its concentration in plasma and muscle falls dramatically. Therefore, glutamine has been reclassified as an essential amino acid under such conditions. Parenteral glutamine supplementation in multiple trauma patients has been associated with reduced infectious complications, mortality, costs, and hospital length of stay. However, glutamine supplementation in multiple trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition and its best route are still controversial. Although glutamine supplementation is recommended, further well-designed multicenter trials are needed to provide a confirmed conclusion.


Critical Illness Infectious Complication Enteral Nutrition Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Multiple Trauma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.





Compensatory Anti-inflammatory Response Syndrome


C-reactive Protein




Essential Amino Acid


Enteral Nutrition


Fc Receptor


Glasgow Coma Scale




Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR


Heat shock protein


ICU length of stay


Intensive Care Unit


Injury Severity Score




Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome


Multiple Organ Failure


Nitrogen Balance


Not Significant


Randomised Clinical Trial




Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome


Sequential Organ Failure Assessment


Toll-like Receptor


Total Parenteral Nutrition


Urinary Urea Nitrogen


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Copyright information

© Copyright Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Australia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruqaiya M. Al Balushi
    • 1
  • Jennifer D. Paratz
    • 2
  • Jeremy Cohen
    • 3
  • Merrilyn Banks
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and HealthCollege of Food and Agriculture, United Arab Emirates UniversityAl Ain United Arab Emirates
  2. 2.Burns Trauma and Critical Care Research CentreUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Intensive CareRoyal Brisbane and Women’s HospitalBrisbaneAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Nutrition and DieteticsRoyal Brisbane and Women’s HospitalBrisbaneAustralia

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