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GlutamineSupplementation in Multiple Trauma and Critical Illness

  • Ruqaiya M. Al Balushi
  • Jennifer D. Paratz
  • Jeremy Cohen
  • Merrilyn Banks
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body and has been considered nonessential in the past because it can be synthesized de novo. However, during stress and catabolic conditions such as multiple trauma and critical illness, the demand for glutamine increases and its concentration in plasma and muscle falls dramatically. Therefore, glutamine has been reclassified as an essential amino acid under such conditions. Parenteral glutamine supplementation in multiple trauma patients has been associated with reduced infectious complications, mortality, costs, and hospital length of stay. However, glutamine supplementation in multiple trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition and its best route are still controversial. Although glutamine supplementation is recommended, further well-designed multicenter trials are needed to provide a confirmed conclusion.

Keywords

Critical Illness Infectious Complication Enteral Nutrition Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Multiple Trauma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

Ala-Gln

Alanyl-glutamine

CARS

Compensatory Anti-inflammatory Response Syndrome

CRP

C-reactive Protein

DB

Double-blind

EAA

Essential Amino Acid

EN

Enteral Nutrition

FcγRI/CD64

Fc Receptor

GCS

Glasgow Coma Scale

Gln

Glutamine

HLA-DR

Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR

HSP

Heat shock protein

ICU LOS

ICU length of stay

ICU

Intensive Care Unit

ISS

Injury Severity Score

IV

Intravenous

MODS

Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome

MOF

Multiple Organ Failure

NB

Nitrogen Balance

NS

Not Significant

RCT

Randomised Clinical Trial

SB

Single-blind

SIRS

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

SOFA

Sequential Organ Failure Assessment

TLR

Toll-like Receptor

TPN

Total Parenteral Nutrition

UUN

Urinary Urea Nitrogen

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Copyright information

© Copyright Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Australia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruqaiya M. Al Balushi
    • 1
  • Jennifer D. Paratz
    • 2
  • Jeremy Cohen
    • 3
  • Merrilyn Banks
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and HealthCollege of Food and Agriculture, United Arab Emirates UniversityAl Ain United Arab Emirates
  2. 2.Burns Trauma and Critical Care Research CentreUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Intensive CareRoyal Brisbane and Women’s HospitalBrisbaneAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Nutrition and DieteticsRoyal Brisbane and Women’s HospitalBrisbaneAustralia

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