Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu

Query Expansion Models

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_926


Term expansion models


In information retrieval, the query expansion models are the techniques, algorithms or methodologies that reformulate the original query by adding new terms into the query, in order to achieve a better retrieval effectiveness.

Historical Background

The idea of expanding a query to achieve better retrieval performance emerged around the early 1970’s. A classical query expansion algorithm is Rocchio’s relevance feedback technique proposed in 1971 [10] for the Smart retrieval system. Since then, many different query expansion techniques and algorithms have been proposed.


Query expansion models can be classed into three categories: manual, automatic, and interactive. Manual query expansion relies on searcher’s knowledge and experience in selecting appropriate terms to add to the query. Automatic query expansion weights candidate terms for expansion by processing the documents returned from the first-pass retrieval, and expands the...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of GlasgowGlasgowUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Giambattista Amati
    • 1
  1. 1.Fondazione Ugo BordoniRomeItaly