Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu

Temporal PSM

  • Richard T. SnodgrassEmail author
  • Dengfeng Gao
  • Rui Zhang
  • Stephen W. Thomas
  • Jennifer Dempsey
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_80731


Persistent Stored Modules


Temporal PSM is an extension of persistent stored modules (PSM) in SQL to add temporal support [1]. Persistent stored modules make up the Turing-complete portion of SQL and provide structured programming constructs (e.g., IF, WHILE). PSM also includes support for procedures which can be called directly and functions which can be invoked from within an SQL query (modification, view, cursor, etc.). Temporal PSM requires minor new syntax beyond that already in SQL/Temporal to define and to invoke PSM procedures and functions, thereby extending the current, sequenced, and nonsequenced semantics of queries to such routines.

Historical Background

Temporal query languages are now fairly well understood, as indicated by support in prominent DBMSes. Procedures and functions in the form of Persistent Stored Modules (PSM) have been included in the SQL standard and implemented in numerous DBMSes [2].

The SQL standard includes stored routines in part 4:...

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Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Snodgrass RT, Gao D, Zhang R, Thomas SW. Temporal support for persistent stored modules. In: Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Data Engineering, Arlington; 2012. p. 114–25.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Melton J. Understanding SQL’s stored procedures: a complete guide to SQL/PSM. San Francisco: Kaufmann Publishers; 1998.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    ISO/IEC. Information technology—database languages—SQL 9075. Geneva: ISO; 2011.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Snodgrass RT. Developing time-oriented database applications in SQL; San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers; 1999, p. 504+xxiii. ISBN:1-55860-436-7.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Snodgrass RT, Böhlen MH, Jensen CS, Steiner A. Adding transaction time to SQL/temporal. SQL3 Standards Committee, change proposal ANSI X3H2-96-502r2, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC21/ WG3 DBL MAD-147r2; Nov 1996.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Snodgrass RT, Böhlen MH, Jensen CS, Steiner A. Adding valid time to SQL/temporal. SQL3 Standards Committee, change proposal ANSI X3H2-96-501r2, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC21/ WG3 DBL MAD-146r2; Nov 1996.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Snodgrass RT, Ahn I. Temporal databases. IEEE Comput. 1986;19(9):35–42.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bair J, Böhlen M, Jensen CS, Snodgrass RT. Notions of upward compatibility of temporal query languages. Bus Inform (Wirtschafts Informatik). 1997;39(1):25–34.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Böhlen MH, Jensen CS, Snodgrass RT. Temporal statement modifiers. ACM Trans Database Syst. 2000;25(4):407–56.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gao D. Supporting the procedural component of query languages over time-varying data. Ph.D. dissertation, Computer Science Department, University of Arizona, Apr 2009.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard T. Snodgrass
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Dengfeng Gao
    • 2
  • Rui Zhang
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Stephen W. Thomas
    • 6
  • Jennifer Dempsey
    • 7
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.IBM Silicon Valley LabSan JoseUSA
  3. 3.University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  4. 4.Dataware VenturesTucsonUSA
  5. 5.Dataware VenturesRedondo BeachUSA
  6. 6.Dataware VenturesKingstonCanada
  7. 7.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  8. 8.Raytheon Missile SystemsTucsonUSA