Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu

Data Manipulation Language (DML)

  • M. Tamer ÖzsuEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_80654


Query language


A data manipulation language allows users to access and retrieve database contents in both interactive and embedded (in a host programming language) modes. DML includes constructs that allow retrieval and manipulation of database content. The more common and popular term used for DML is the “query language.” The ISO standard SQL language is the most popular DML for relational databases. DML can be declarative, specifying the properties of the data that is to be retrieved from the database or procedural where the use specifies how to access the data. Modern DBMSs are expected to have declarative DMLs (such as SQL), which allows the DBMS to convert them into a relational algebra expression before optimizing their execution. There are other data manipulation languages for specific DBMSs – e.g., SPARQL for RDF data, OQL for object database systems, and XQuery for XML DBMSs.

Historical Background

The definition of a DML dates back to the origins of...

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Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Elmasri R, Navathe S. Fundamentals of database systems, 7th ed. Pearson; 2016.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Silberschatz A, Korth HF, Sudarshan S. Database systems concepts, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill; 2010.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ramakrishnan R, Gehrke J. Database management systems, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill; 2002.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cheriton School of Computer ScienceUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ramez Elmasri
    • 1
  1. 1.Computer ScienceThe University of Texas at ArlingtonArlingtonUSA