Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu

Tree-Based Indexing

  • Yannis ManolopoulosEmail author
  • Yannis Theodoridis
  • Vassilis J. Tsotras
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_755


B+-tree; Index Sequential Access Method (ISAM); R-tree


Consider a relation R with some numeric attribute A taking values over an (ordered) domain D. A range query retrieves all tuples in R whose attribute A has values in the interval [low, high]. That is, low ≤ R.A ≤ high. To enable fast processing of range selection queries, an access method that maintains order is needed. Such an index has the form of a tree, where each node corresponds to a page. Leaf nodes contain (or index) the actual values of A, while index nodes provide ordered access to the nodes underneath. Examples of tree-based indexing are the B+-tree and the R-tree (for single- and multidimensional ranges, respectively).

Key Points

A major performance goal of a database management system is to minimize the number of I/Os (i.e., blocks or pages transferred) between the disk and main memory. One way to achieve this goal is to minimize the number of I/Os when answering a query. Consider, for example,...

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Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Elmasri RA, Navathe SB. Fundamentals of database systems. 5th ed. Reading: Addisson-Wesley; 2007.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Manolopoulos TY, Tsotras Y, Vassilis J. Advanced database indexing. Dordecht: Kluwer; 1999.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ramakrishnan R, Gehrke J. Database management systems. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2003.zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yannis Manolopoulos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yannis Theodoridis
    • 2
  • Vassilis J. Tsotras
    • 3
  1. 1.Aristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.University of PiraeusPiraeusGreece
  3. 3.University of California-RiversideRiversideUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Vassilis J. Tsotras
    • 1
  1. 1.University of California-RiversideRiversideUSA