Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu


  • Donghui ZhangEmail author
  • Kenneth Paul Baclawski
  • Vassilis J. Tsotras
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_739




The B+-tree is a disk-based, paginated, dynamically updateable, balanced, and treelike index structure. It supports the exact match query as well as insertion/deletion operations in O(logpn) I/Os, where n is the number of records in the tree and p is the page capacity in number of records. It also supports the range searches in O(logpn + tp) I/Os, where t is the number of records in the query result.

Historical Background

The binary search tree is a well-known data structure. When the data volume is so large that the tree does not fit in main memory, a disk-based search tree is necessary. The most commonly used disk-based search trees are the B-tree and its variations. Originally invented by Bayer and McCreight [2], the B-tree may be regarded as an extension of the balanced binary tree, since a B-tree is always balanced (i.e., all leaf nodes are on the same level). Since each disk access retrieves or updates an entire block of information between memory and...

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Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Bayer R. The universal B-tree for multidimensional indexing: general concepts. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Worldwide Computing and Its Applications; 1997. p. 198–209.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bayer R, McCreight EM. Organization and maintenance of large ordered indices. Acta Inf. 1972;1(3):173–89.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Comer D. The ubiquitous B-tree. ACM Comput Surv. 1979;11(2):121–37.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Knuth D. The art of computer programming. Sorting and searching, vol. 3. Reading: Addison Wesley; 1973.Google Scholar
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    Robinson JT. K-D-B tree: a search structure for large multidimensional dynamic indexes. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data; 1981. p. 10–8.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Srinivasan V, Carey MJ. Performance of B+ tree concurrency algorithms. VLDB J. 1993;2(4):361–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Theodoridis Y. The R-tree-portal. 2003. http://www.rtreeportal.org

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donghui Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kenneth Paul Baclawski
    • 2
  • Vassilis J. Tsotras
    • 3
  1. 1.Paradigm4, Inc.WalthamUSA
  2. 2.Northeastern UniversityBostonUSA
  3. 3.University of California-RiversideRiversideUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Vassilis J. Tsotras
    • 1
  1. 1.University of California-RiversideRiversideUSA