Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu


  • Prasenjit MitraEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_50


Bibliography; Reference


A citation is a reference from one article to another article. A citation is a record that consists of the names of the authors, the title of the referred article, the time and place of publication, as well as various other fields. The fields in the citation should collectively specify unambiguously where the full text of the referred article could be obtained. Typically, all citations are presented at the end of the referring article. However, articles in certain domains list the citations as footnotes in the pages where the reference occurs. Citations can range from references to be to single articles or to entire books.

Key Points

Often, authors have to refer to knowledge that is derived from another work. For example, when quoting text from another article or book, the author must specify from which article or book the quotation is obtained. Authors need to refer to other works in order to point out preliminary information on the...

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Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Garfield E. Citation indexing: its theory and application in science, technology, and humanities. New York: Wiley; 1979.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Garfield E. Citation analysis as a tool in journal evaluation: journals can be ranked by frequency and impact of citations for science policy studies. Science. 1972;178(4060):471–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Small H. Co-citation in the scientific literature: a new measure of the relationship between two documents. J Am Soc Inf Sci. 1973;24(4):265–9. Wiley Periodicals.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Amr El Abbadi
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Computer ScienceUC Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA