Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu

Query Processing and Optimization in Object Relational Databases

  • Johann-Christoph FreytagEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_297


Query evaluation; Query planning and execution


In an (object) relational database management system (DBMS) query processing comprises all steps of processing a user submitted query including its execution to compute the requested result. Usually, a user query – for example a SQL query – declaratively describes what should be computed. Then, it is the responsibility of the DBMS to determine how to compute the result by generating a (procedural) query execution plan (QEP) that is semantically equivalent to the original query. Query processing also includes the execution of this generated QEP.

While generating a QEP for a user submitted query the DBMS explores a large number of potential execution alternatives. To choose the best ones among those alternatives requires one or more (query) optimization phases.

Historical Background

In the late 1960s and early 1970s it became clear that existing DBMSs were too complex and cumbersome to use. The programmer was forced to...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Deshpande A, Ives Z, Raman V. Adaptive query processing. Found Trends Databases. 2007;1(1): 1–140.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Freytag JC. The basic principles of query optimization in relational database management systems. In: Proceedings of the IFIP 11th World Computer Congress; 1989. p. 801–7.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Freytag JC, Maier D, Vossen G, editors. Query processing for advanced database systems. San Mateo: Morgan Kaufmann; 1994.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Graefe G. Query evaluation techniques for large databases. ACM Comput Surv. 1993;25(2):73–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ioannidis YE. The history of histograms (abridged). In: Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases; 2003. p. 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jarke M, Koch J. Query optimization in database systems. ACM Comput Surv. 1984;16(2):111–52.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pirahesh H, Hellerstein JM, Hasan W. Extensible/rule based query rewrite optimization in starburst. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data; 1992. p. 39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Selinger PG, Astrahan MM, Chamberlin DD, Lorie RA, Price TG. Access path selection in a relational database management system. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data; 1979. p. 23–34.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yu CT, Meng W. Principles of database query processing for advanced applications. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann; 1998.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Humboldt University of BerlinBerlinGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Evaggelia Pitoura
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Computer ScienceUniv. of IoanninaIoanninaGreece