Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu


  • Radu SionEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_1487


Covert communication; Information hiding


Steganography (from the greek “steganos” – covered) is a term denoting mechanisms for hiding information within a “cover” such that, generally, only an intended recipient will (i) have knowledge of its existence, and (ii) will be able to recover it from within its cover. In modern digital steganography applications, the cover is often a multimedia object such as an image that is minorly altered in the steganographic process. Steganographic techniques have been deployed for millenia and several primitive war-time instances are described in the Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, including a case of a message tattooed on the shaven head of a slave, which, when covered with grown hair acted as an effective “cover” when traversing enemy lines.

Key Points

Steganography Versus Watermarking

A common trend of term misuse is associated with steganography. Specifically, many sources consider the term “watermarking” as equivalent....

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Cox I, Miller M, Bloom J, Fridrich J, Kalker T. Digital watermarking and steganography. 2nd ed. Morgan Kaufmann; 2007.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Stony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Elena Ferrari
    • 1
  1. 1.DiSTAUniv. of InsubriaVareseItaly