Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu

Entity Relationship Model

  • Il-Yeol SongEmail author
  • Peter P. Chen
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_148


Entity-relationship model; ER Model; ERM


The entity relationship model (ERM) is a conceptual model that represents the information structure of a problem domain in terms of entities and relationships. The result of modeling using the ERM is graphically represented as an entity relationship diagram (ERD). Thus, an ERD represents the conceptual structure of a problem domain being modeled. ERDs are widely used in database design and systems analysis to capture requirements of a system or a problem domain. In particular, when used for data modeling, the ERD assists the database designer in identifying both the data and the rules that are represented and used in a database. ERDs are readily translated into relational database schemas.

Historical Background

The ERM was introduced by Peter Chen in 1976 [2]. The ERM and its variations have been widely used in database modeling and design, systems analysis and design methodologies, computer-aided software engineering (CASE)...

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Recommended Reading

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    Batini C, Ceri S, Navathe SB. Conceptual database design: an entity-relationship approach. Reading: Benjamin/Cummings; 1991.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
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    Chen PP. The entity relationship model – toward a unified view of data. ACM Trans Database Sys. 1976;1(1):9–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Chen PP. English sentence structure and entity relationship diagrams. Inf Sci. 1983;29(2–3):127–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Chen PP. Entity-relationship modeling: historical events, future trends, and lessons learned. In: Broy M, Denert E, editors. Software pioneers: contributions to software engineering. New York: Springer; 2002. p. 100–14.Google Scholar
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    Dullea J, Song I-Y, Lamprou I. An analysis of structural validity in entity-relationship modeling. Data Knowl Eng. 2003;47(3):167–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Elmasri R, Navathe S. Fundamentals of database systems. 5th ed. Reading: Benjamin/Cummings; 2007.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
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    ER conferences. Available at: http://conceptualmodeling.org
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    Ling TW. A normal form for entity-relationship diagrams. In: Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Entity-Relationship Approach. IEEE Computer Society; 1985. p. 24–35.Google Scholar
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    Song I-Y, Evans M, Park EK. A comparative analysis of entity-relationship diagrams. J Comput Softw Eng. 1995;3(4):427–59.Google Scholar
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    Teorey TJ, Yang D, Fry JP. A logical design methodology for relational databases using the extended entity-relationship model. Comput Surv. 1986;18(12):197–222.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Teorey TJ, Lightstone SS, Nadeau T. Database modeling & design: logical design. 4th ed. San Francisco: Morgan Kauffman; 2005.zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Computing and InformaticsDrexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Louisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • David W. Embley
    • 1
  1. 1.Brigham Young UniversityProvoUSA