Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu


  • Christian S. JensenEmail author
  • Richard T. Snodgrass
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_1411


A calendar provides a human interpretation of time. As such, calendars ascribe meaning to temporal values such that the particular meaning or interpretation provided is relevant to its users. In particular, calendars determine the mapping between human-meaningful time values and an underlying time line.

Key Points

Calendars are most often cyclic, allowing human-meaningful time values to be expressed succinctly. For example, dates in the common Gregorian calendar may be expressed in the form <month, day, year> where the month and day fields cycle as time passes.

The concept of calendar defined here subsumes commonly used calendars such as the Gregorian calendar, the Hebrew calendar, and the Lunar calendar, though the given definition is much more general. This usage is consistent with the conventional English meaning of the word.

Dershowitz and Reingold’s book presents complete algorithms for fourteen prominent calendars: the present civil calendar (Gregorian), the recent ISO...

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Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Bettini C, Dyreson CE, Evans WS, Snodgrass RT, Wang XS. A glossary of time granularity concepts. In: Etzion O, Jajodia S, Sripada S, editors. Temporal databases: research and practice, LNCS, vol. 1399. Berlin: Springer; 1998. p. 406–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dershowitz N, Reingold EM. Calendrical calculations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1977.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jensen CS, Dyreson CE. editors. Böhlen M, Clifford J, Elmasri R, Gadia SK, Grandi F, Hayes P, Jajodia S, Käfer W, Kline N, Lorentzos N, Mitsopoulos Y, Montanari A, Nonen D, Peressi E, Pernici B, Roddick JF, Sarda NL, Scalas MR, Segev A, Snodgrass RT, Soo MD, Tansel A, Tiberio R, Wiederhold G. A consensus glossary of temporal database concepts – February 1998 Version. In: Etzion O, Jajodia S, Sripada S. editors. Temporal databases: research and practice. LNCS, vol. 1399. Berlin: Springer; 1998. p. 367–405.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Urgun B, Dyreson CE, Snodgrass RT, Miller JK, Kline N, Soo MD, Jensen CS. Integrating multiple calendars using τZaman. Softw Pract Exper. 2007;37(3): 267–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceAalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  3. 3.Dataware VenturesTucsonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Richard T. Snodgrass
    • 1
  • Christian S. Jensen
    • 2
  1. 1.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Aalborg UniversityAalborg ØstDenmark