Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu

Incremental Computation of Queries

  • Guozhu DongEmail author
  • Jianwen Su
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_1351


Incremental Maintenance of Views with Aggregates


A view on a database is defined by a query over the database. When the database is updated, the value of the view (namely the answer to the query) will likely change. The computation of the new answer to the query using the old answer is called incremental query computation or incremental view maintenance. Incremental computation is typically performed by identifying the part in the old answer that need to be removed, and the part in the new answer that need to be added. Incremental computation is desirable when it is much more efficient than a re-computation of the query. Efficiency can be measured by computation time, storage space, or query language desirability/availability, etc. Incremental computation algorithms could use auxiliary relations (in addition to the query answer), which also need to be incrementally computed.

Two query languages can be involved for the incremental query computation problem. One is...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Dong G, Libkin L, Su J, Wong L. Maintaining transitive closure of graphs in SQL. Int J Inf Technol. 1999;5(1):46–78.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dong G, Pang C. Maintaining transitive closure in first-order after node-set and edge-set deletions. Inf Process Lett. 1997;62(3):193–9.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dong G, Su J. Incremental and decremental evaluation of transitive closure by first-order queries. Inf Comput. 1995;120(1):101–6.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dong G, Su J. Arity bounds in first-order incremental evaluation and definition of polynomial time database queries. J Comput Syst Sci. 1998;57(3):289–308. Preliminary version in the proceedings of the ACM symposium on principles of database systems, 1995.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dong G, Su J. Incremental maintenance of recursive views using relational calculus/SQL. ACM SIGMOD Rec. 2000;29(1):44–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dong G, Su J, Topor R. Nonrecursive incremental evaluation of datalog queries. Ann Math Artif Intell. 1995;14(2–4):187–223.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dong G, Topor R. Incremental evaluation of datalog queries. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Database Theory; 1992. p. 282–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Griffin T, Libkin L, Trickey H. An improved algorithm for the incremental recomputation of active relational expressions. IEEE Trans Knowl Data Eng. 1997;9(3):508–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gupta A, Mumick IS. Materialized views: techniques, implementations, and applications. Mass: MIT; 1999.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Immerman N. Descriptive complexity. New York: Springer; 1998.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Libkin L, Wong L. On the power of incremental evaluation in SQL-like languages. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Database Programming Languages; 1999.p. 17–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pang C, Dong G, Kotagiri R. Incremental maintenance of shortest distance and transitive closure in first-order logic and SQL. ACM Trans Database Syst. 2005;30(3):698–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Patnaik S, Immerman N. Dyn-FO: a parallel dynamic complexity class. J Comput Syst Sci. 1997;55(2):199–209. Preliminary version in the proceedings of the ACM symposium on principles of database systems, 1994.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Qian X, Wiederhold G. Incremental recomputation of active relational expressions. IEEE Trans Knowl Data Eng. 1991;3(3):337–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wright State UniversityDaytonUSA
  2. 2.University of California-Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Leonid Libkin
    • 1
  1. 1.School of InformaticsUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghUK