Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu

Temporal Specialization

  • Christian S. JensenEmail author
  • Richard T. Snodgrass
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_1058


Temporal restriction


Temporal specialization denotes the restriction of the interrelationships between otherwise independent (implicit or explicit) timestamps in temporal relations. An example is a relation where tuples are always inserted after the facts they record were valid in reality. In such a relation, the transaction time of a tuple would always be after the valid time. Temporal specialization may be applied to relation schemas, relation instances, and individual tuples.

Key Points

Data models exist where relations are required to be specialized, and temporal specializations often constitute important semantics about temporal relations that may be utilized for, e.g., improving the efficiency of query processing.

Temporal specialization encompasses several kinds of specialization. One is based on the relationships between isolated events and one based on inter-event relationships. Two additional kinds consider intervals instead of events, and one is based on...

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Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Jensen CS, Dyreson CE, editors. A consensus glossary of temporal database concepts – February 1998 version. In: Etzion O, Jajodia S, Sripada S, editors. Temporal databases: research and practice. LNCS 1399. Berlin: Springer; 1998. p. 367–405.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jensen CS, Snodgrass RT. Specialized temporal relations. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Data Engineering. 1992; p. 594–603.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jensen CS, Snodgrass RT. Temporal specialization and generalization. IEEE Trans Knowl Data Eng. 1994;5(6):954–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceAalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  3. 3.Dataware VenturesTucsonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Richard T. Snodgrass
    • 1
  • Christian S. Jensen
    • 2
  1. 1.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Aalborg UniversityAalborg ØstDenmark