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Intestinal Failure and Parenteral Omega-3 Fatty Acid Lipid Emulsions

Reference work entry

Abstract

Intestinal failure will occur in intensive care patients, necessitating the use of parenteral nutrition. It is not known how commonly such patients will develop intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). Furthermore, liver disease is observed in intensive care patients, independent of parenteral nutrition. Therefore, it is not clear if omega-3 lipid emulsions will benefit intensive care patients, to improve liver disease, as now reported in IFALD. However, omega-3 lipid emulsions may have other benefits in critically ill patients, including immune modulation and reduction in oxidative stress. At this time it is not clear if the benefits for IFALD, or indeed for immune function, are specifically related to the addition of omega-3 lipid or to concomitant reduction in omega-6 lipid.

Keywords

Parenteral Nutrition Enteral Nutrition Short Bowel Syndrome Lipid Emulsion Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations

AA

Arachidonic acid

BSEP

Bile salt export pump

CCK

Cholecystokinin

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

EFAD

Essential fatty acid deficiency

EN

Enteral nutrition

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

FXR

Farnesoid-X-receptor

ICU

Intensive care/intensive care unit

IFALD

Intestinal failure-associated liver disease

IVLE

Intravenous lipid emulsion

LA

Linolenic acid

LCPUFA

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MCT

Medium-chain triglyceride

PICU

Pediatric intensive care or intensive care unit

PN

Parenteral nutrition

PNALD

Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease

TXA2

Thromboxane A2

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Copyright information

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Department of PediatricsUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Group for Improvement of Intestinal Function and Treatment (GIFT), Division of General and Thoracic SurgeryThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada

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