Calorie and Protein Deficit in the ICU

Reference work entry


Underfeeding is a common occurrence in critical illness. This issue is of high concern, as inadequate nutrient delivery leads to loss of lean body mass. Additionally, calculating calorie and protein needs for these patients often proves to be a difficult task due to lack of standardization and appropriate application of many formulas. Many studies have demonstrated negative outcomes from underfeeding, including increased infectious complications, longer lengths of stay, and increased mortality. Interestingly, newer, better designed studies have shown a protective effect of underfeeding in critical illness. However, a majority of the literature has limitations that require further interpretation of results. Additional research is needed to accurately determine effects of underfeeding in critical illness to guide practice.


Parenteral Nutrition Critical Illness Lean Body Mass Intensive Care Unit Patient Enteral Nutrition 
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List of Abbreviations


American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition


Body Mass Index


Gastric Residual Volume


Intensive Care Unit




Recommended Dietary Allowance


Society of Critical Care Medicine


Tight Calorie Control Study


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Copyright information

© Springer Science and Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA

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