Calorie and Protein Deficit in the ICU

Reference work entry

Abstract

Underfeeding is a common occurrence in critical illness. This issue is of high concern, as inadequate nutrient delivery leads to loss of lean body mass. Additionally, calculating calorie and protein needs for these patients often proves to be a difficult task due to lack of standardization and appropriate application of many formulas. Many studies have demonstrated negative outcomes from underfeeding, including increased infectious complications, longer lengths of stay, and increased mortality. Interestingly, newer, better designed studies have shown a protective effect of underfeeding in critical illness. However, a majority of the literature has limitations that require further interpretation of results. Additional research is needed to accurately determine effects of underfeeding in critical illness to guide practice.

Keywords

Pneumonia Diarrhea Calorimetry Constipation Tray 

List of Abbreviations

ASPEN

American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

BMI

Body Mass Index

GRV

Gastric Residual Volume

ICU

Intensive Care Unit

kcal

Kilocalorie

RDA

Recommended Dietary Allowance

SCCM

Society of Critical Care Medicine

TICACOS

Tight Calorie Control Study

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Copyright information

© Springer Science and Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA

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