Globalization is the ongoing process of increasing interconnectedness between cross-boundary actors, driven by flows of people, ideas, goods, and capital. Globalization reduces the relevance of these national boundaries and stimulates the emergence of complex networks that foster the exchange and integration of technologies, economies, governance, communities, and culture.
In this contribution, we first define and conceptualize globalization by distinguishing between de jure and de facto forms of globalization and by highlighting its main dimensions. From this conceptualization, we then derive and discuss how we can and are measuring globalization, again in its crucial dimensions; using these measures, we analyze and discuss how globalization has evolved over time and across countries or country groupings. We then look at the consequences of globalization and ways to govern it, from the perspective of three complementary perspectives, the market-centered,...
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