Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience

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Control of Aquatic and Terrestrial Gaits in Salamander

  • Auke Jan IjspeertEmail author
  • Jean-Marie Cabelguen
Living reference work entry

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7320-6_44-2



Salamanders are amphibian animals that are capable of several aquatic and terrestrial gaits. These gaits are in large part controlled by central pattern generator (CPG) networks in the spinal cord. These networks can be modeled at several levels of abstraction from detailed models based on Hodgkin-Huxley type of neurons to abstract systems of coupled oscillators. The models have been instrumental in testing some hypotheses concerning gait generation and gait transition in the salamander. One of the main hypotheses is that the salamander CPG is constructed out of two main subnetworks: a lamprey-like swimming CPG for the axial musculature and slower CPGs for the limbs. Some of the models have been tested on a salamander-like robot and demonstrated their ability to make transitions between swimming and walking gaits by varying the level of tonic input applied to the CPGs.

Detailed Description

Locomotion in Salamanders



Standing Wave Sensory Feedback Central Pattern Generator Couple Oscillator Rhythm Generation 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.EPFL Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.Neurocentre MagendieINSERM U 862 – Bordeaux UniversityBordeaux CedexFrance