Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience

Living Edition
| Editors: Dieter Jaeger, Ranu Jung

Somatosensory Cortex: Organization

  • Gregg TabotEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7320-6_385-1

History

In 1909, Brodmann published maps of the different regions of cortex in humans and monkeys (Brodmann 1909). He partitioned the postcentral gyrus into three distinct areas based on cytoarchitecture and cell organization. From rostral to caudal, he designated these areas as areas 3, 1, and 2. Later studies showed that Brodmann’s area 3 could be functionally and structurally divided into two distinct areas now labeled areas 3a and 3b (Vogt and Vogt 1919). Although all four brain areas are often together designated primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and to an extent respond to cutaneous stimulation, area 3b is most analogous to the other primary sensory cortices given its similarity in inputs and laminar structure. Area 3b is thus S1 proper.

Later, in 1940 Adrian discovered a second brain region, adjacent to S1, which contained representations of the forefoot and hindfoot in cats (Adrian 1940). Adrian initially thought this area to be a cortex dedicated to the cats’ special ability...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Adrian ED (1940) Double representation of the feet in the sensory cortex of the cat. J Physiol 98:16–18Google Scholar
  2. Bensmaia SJ, Denchev PV, Dammann JF, Craig JC, Hsiao SS (2008) The representation of stimulus orientation in the early stages of somatosensory processing. J Neurosci 28(3):776–786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brodmann K (1909) Vergleichende Lokalisationslehre der Gro hirnrinde. Johann Ambrosius BarthGoogle Scholar
  4. Fitzgerald PJ, Lane JW, Thakur PH, Hsiao SS (2004) Receptive field properties of the macaque second somatosensory cortex: evidence for multiple functional representations. J Neurosci 24(49):11193–11204PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fitzgerald PJ, Lane JW, Thakur PH, Hsiao SS (2006) Receptive field properties of the macaque second somatosensory cortex: representation of orientation on different finger pads. J Neurosci 26(24):6473–6484PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Iwamura Y (1998) Hierarchical somatosensory processing. Curr Opin Neurobiol 8(4):522–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Iwamura Y, Tanaka M, Sakamoto M, Hikosaka O (1993) Rostrocaudal gradients in the neuronal receptive field complexity in the finger region of the alert monkey’s postcentral gyrus. Exp Brain Res 92:360–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kaas JH, Nelson RJ, Sur M, Lin CS, Merzenich MM (1979) Multiple representations of the body within the primary somatosensory cortex of primates. Science 204:521–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Krubitzer L, Clarey J, Tweedale R, Elston G, Calford M (1995) A redefinition of somatosensory areas in the lateral sulcus of macaque monkeys. J Neurosci 348:55–72Google Scholar
  10. Lebedev MA, Nelson RJ (1996) High-frequency vibratory sensitive neurons in monkey primary somatosensory cortex: entrained and nonentrained responses to vibration during the performance of vibratory-cued hand movements. Exp Brain Res 111:313–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Pei YC, Hsiao SS, Craig JC, Bensmaia SJ (2010) Shape invariant coding of motion direction in somatosensory cortex. PLoS Biol 8(2):e1000305PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Timmermann L, Ploner M, Haucke K, Schmitz F, Baltissen R, Schnitzler A (2001) Differential coding of pain intensity in the human primary and secondary somatosensory cortex. J Neurophysiol 86(3):1499–1503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Treede RD, Kenshal DR, Gracely RH, Jones AKP (1999) The cortical representation of pain. Pain 79:105–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Vogt C, Vogt O (1919) Allgemeinere Ergebnisse unserer Hirnforschung. J Psycho Neurol 25:279–462Google Scholar
  15. Woolsey CN (1943) “Second” somatic receiving areas in the cerebral cortex of cat, dog and monkey. Fed Proc 2:55–56Google Scholar
  16. Woolsey CN, Erickson TC, Gilson WE (1979) Localization in somatic sensory and motor areas of human cerebral cortex as determined by direct recording of evoked potentials and electrical stimulation. J Neurosurg 51:476–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Yau JM, Pasupathy A, Fitzgerald PJ, Hsiao SS, Connor CE (2009) Analogous intermediate shape coding in vision and touch. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106(38):16457–16462PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Yumiya H, Kubota K, Asanuma H (1974) Activities of neurons in area 3a of the cerebral cortex during voluntary movements in the monkey. Brain Res 78(2):169–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zarzecki P, Shinoda Y, Asanuma H (1978) Projections from area 3a to the motor cortex by neurons activated from group I muscle afferents. Exp Brain Res 33(2):269–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Committee on Computational Neuroscience, Somatosensory Research LabUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA