Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience

Living Edition
| Editors: Dieter Jaeger, Ranu Jung

Control of Breathing, Integration of Adaptive Reflexes

  • Chung TinEmail author
  • Chi-Sang Poon
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7320-6_249-1

Definition

Models of respiratory regulation – as with many physiological control systems – have traditionally invoked the Sherringtonian reflex paradigm (Sherrington 1906) in which the response to any afferent input is assumed to follow a static stimulus–response relationship that adds to other stimulus–response relationships to produce the overall response. Such a reductionist analysis has set the foundation for our understanding of various respiratory control mechanisms, such as central and peripheral chemoreflex, lung inflation and deflation reflexes, and exercise reflex via various chemical and mechanical afferent feedbacks and feedforward commands. Under this Sherringtonian framework, such feedback and feedforward controls are taken as a combination of simple reflex drives acting in parallel that are integrated algebraically by the brainstem respiratory controller in determining the resultant respiratory rhythm (inspiratory/expiratory duration) and motor pattern (tidal volume) in...

Keywords

Internal Model Respiratory Control Primary Stimulus Peripheral Chemoreceptor Neural Integrator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Blain GM, Smith CA, Henderson KS, Dempsey JA (2010) Peripheral chemoreceptors determine the respiratory sensitivity of central chemoreceptors to CO2. J Physiol 588(Pt 13):2455–2471. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2010.187211PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cunningham D, Robbins P, Wolff C (1986) Integration of respiratory responses to changes in alveolar partial pressures of CO2 and O2 and in arterial pH. In: Fishman A, Cherniack NS, Widdicombe J (eds) Handbook of physiology, Sect. 3: the respiratory system. American Physiological Society, Bethesda, pp 475–528Google Scholar
  3. Davidson P, Wolpert D (2005) Widespread access to predictive models in the motor system: a short review. J Neural Eng 2(3):S313–S319. Retrieved from http://iopscience.iop.org/1741-2552/2/3/S11
  4. Day TA, Wilson RJA (2007) Brainstem PCO2 modulates phrenic responses to specific carotid body hypoxia in an in situ dual perfused rat preparation. J Physiol 578(3):843–857. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2006.119594PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Day TA, Wilson RJA (2009) A negative interaction between brainstem and peripheral respiratory chemoreceptors modulates peripheral chemoreflex magnitude. J Physiol 587(Pt 4):883–896. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2008.160689PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dutschmann M, Mörschel M, Rybak IA, Dick TE (2009) Learning to breathe: control of the inspiratory-expiratory phase transition shifts from sensory- to central-dominated during postnatal development in rats. J Physiol 587(Pt 20):4931–4948. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2009.174599PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Francis B, Wonham W (1975) The internal model principle for linear multivariable regulators. Appl Math Optim 2(2):170–194. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01447855
  8. Fuller D, Bach K, Baker T, Kinkead R, Mitchell G (2000) Long term facilitation of phrenic motor output. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 121:135–146. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034568700001249
  9. Glanzman D (1995) The cellular basis of classical conditioning in Aplysia californica—it’s less simple than you think. Trends Neurosci 18(1):30–36. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/016622369593947V
  10. Gray J (1946) The multiple factor theory of the control of respiratory ventilation. Science 103:739–744. Retrieved from http://www.sciencemag.org/content/103/2687/739.short
  11. Grodins F, Gray J, Schroeder K, Norins A, Jones R (1954) Respiratory responses to CO2 inhalation. A theoretical study of a nonlinear biological regulator. J Appl Physiol 7:283–308. Retrieved from http://jap.physiology.org/content/7/3/283.short
  12. Groves P, Thompson R (1970) Habituation: a dual-process theory. Psychol Rev 77:419–450. Retrieved from http://doi.apa.org/psycinfo/1971-02046-001
  13. Hawkins R, Cohen T, Greene W, Kandel E (1998) Relationships between dishabituation, sensitization, and inhibition of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia californica: effects of response measure, test time, and training stimulus. Behav Neurosci 112(1):24–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hawkins R, Clark G, Kandel E (2006) Operant conditioning of gill withdrawal in Aplysia. J Neurosci 26:2443–2448. Retrieved from http://www.jneurosci.org/content/26/9/2443.short
  15. Hebb DO (1949) The organization of behavior: a neuropsychological theory, vol 39, Theology today. Wiley, New York. doi:10.1177/004057368303900411Google Scholar
  16. MacDonald SM, Song G, Poon C-S (2007) Nonassociative learning promotes respiratory entrainment to mechanical ventilation. PLoS One 2(9):e865. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000865PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. MacDonald SM, Tin C, Song G, Poon CS (2009) Use-dependent learning and memory of the Hering-Breuer inflation reflex in rats. Exp Physiol 94(2):269–278. doi:expphysiol.2008.045344 [pii] 10.1113/expphysiol.2008.045344
  18. Mardimae A, Balaban D, Machina M, Battisti-Charbonney A, Han J, Katznelson R, Minkovich LL, Fedorko L, Murphy PM, Wasowicz M, Naughton F, Meineri M, Fisher JA, Duffin J (2012) The interaction of carbon dioxide and hypoxia in the control of cerebral blood flow. Pflugers Arch Eur J Physiol 464:345–351. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00424-012-1148-1
  19. McGuire M, MacDonald S, Song G, Poon CS (2007) Phrenic long-term facilitation is robust to hypercapnia and hypocapnia but not hyperventilatory hypotension under PEEP. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 158:107–111. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1569904807000493
  20. Paoletti P, De Filippis F, Fraioli F, Cinquanta A, Valli G, Laveneziana P, Vaccaro F, Martolini D, Palange P (2011) Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in pulmonary emphysema. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2. doi:10.1016/j.resp.2011.07.013Google Scholar
  21. Poon CS (1987) Ventilatory control in hypercapnia and exercise: optimization hypothesis. J Appl Physiol 62(6):2447. Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Ventilatory+control+in+hypercapnia+and+exercise:+optimization+hypothesis#0
  22. Poon CS (1989a) Effects of inspiratory elastic load on respiratory control in hypercapnia and exercise. J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, 1985) 66(5):2400–2406. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2501282
  23. Poon CS (1989b) Effects of inspiratory resistive load on respiratory control in hypercapnia and exercise. J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, 1985) 66(5):2391–2399. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2501281
  24. Poon CS (1996) Self-tuning optimal regulation of respiratory motor output by Hebbian covariance learning. Neural Netw Off J Int Neural Netw Soc 9(8):1367–1383. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12662540
  25. Poon CS, Greene JG (1985) Control of exercise hyperpnea during hypercapnia in humans. J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, 1985) 59(3):792–797. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4055568
  26. Poon C, Schmid S (2012) Nonassociative learning. In: Seel N (ed) Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning. Springer, New York, pp 2475–2477Google Scholar
  27. Poon C, Siniaia M (2000) Plasticity of cardiorespiratory neural processing: classification and computational functions. Respir Physiol 122(2–3):83–109. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034568700001523
  28. Poon C, Tin C (2013) Mechanism of augmented exercise hyperpnea in chronic heart failure and dead space loading. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 186(1):114–130. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1569904812003795
  29. Poon C-S, Young DL (2006) Nonassociative learning as gated neural integrator and differentiator in stimulus-response pathways. Behav Brain Funct BBF 2:29. doi:10.1186/1744-9081-2-29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Poon CS, Lin SL, Knudson OB (1992) Optimization character of inspiratory neural drive. J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, 1985) 72(5):2005–2017. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1601812
  31. Poon CS, Siniaia MS, Young DL, Eldridge FL (1999) Short-term potentiation of carotid chemoreflex: an NMDAR-dependent neural integrator. Neuroreport 10(11):2261–2265. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10439445
  32. Poon CS, Young DL, Siniaia MS (2000) High-pass filtering of carotid-vagal influences on expiration in rat: role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Neurosci Lett 284(1–2):5–8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10771148
  33. Poon C, Tin C, Yu Y (2007) Homeostasis of exercise hyperpnea and optimal sensorimotor integration: the internal model paradigm. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 159(1):1–20. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1569904807000857
  34. Priban I, Fincham W (1965) Self-adaptive control and the respiratory system. Nature 208(5008):339–343. Retrieved from http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1965Natur.208.339P
  35. Sherrington C (1906) The integrative action of the nervous system. Yale University Press, New Haven. Retrieved from http://www.itiroyal.com/Irradiation and reinforcement, Sir Charles S. Sherrington 1906.pdf
  36. Sidney D, Poon C (1995) Ventilatory responses to dead space and CO2 breathing under inspiratory resistive load. J Appl Physiol 78(2):555–561. Retrieved from http://jap.physiology.org/content/78/2/555.short
  37. Siniaia MS, Young DL, Poon CS (2000) Habituation and desensitization of the Hering-Breuer reflex in rat. J Physiol 523(Pt 2):479–491. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2269814&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
  38. Song G, Poon C (2009a) Lateral parabrachial nucleus mediates shortening of expiration and increase of inspiratory drive during hypercapnia. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 165(1):9–12. doi:10.1016/j.resp.2008.10.009Google Scholar
  39. Song G, Poon CS (2009b) Lateral parabrachial nucleus mediates shortening of expiration during hypoxia. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 165(1):1–8. doi:10.1016/j.resp.2008.10.007.LateralPubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tadjalli A, Duffin J, Peever J (2010) Identification of a novel form of noradrenergic-dependent respiratory motor plasticity triggered by vagal feedback. J Neurosci Off J Soc Neurosci 30(50):16886–16895. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3394-10.2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Thompson R (1988) The neural basis of basic associative learning of discrete behavioral responses. Trends Neurosci 11(4):152–155. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0166223688901415
  42. Thompson R, Steinmetz J (2009) The role of the cerebellum in classical conditioning of discrete behavioral responses. Neuroscience 162:732–755. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306452209000967
  43. Tin C, Poon C-S (2005) Internal models in sensorimotor integration: perspectives from adaptive control theory. J Neural Eng 2(3):S147–S163. doi:10.1088/1741-2560/2/3/S01PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tin C, Song G, Poon C-S (2012) Hypercapnia attenuates inspiratory amplitude and expiratory time responsiveness to hypoxia in vagotomized and vagal-intact rats. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 181(1):79–87. doi:10.1016/j.resp.2012.01.008PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Xing T, Fong A, Bautista T, Pilowsky P (2013) Acute intermittent hypoxia induced neural plasticity in respiratory motor control. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol . Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1440-1681.12129/abstract
  46. Young D, Poon C (1998) Hebbian covariance learning. A nexus for respiratory variability, memory, and optimization? Adv Exp Med Biol 450:73–83. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10026966
  47. Young DL, Eldridge FL, Poon C-S (2003) Integration-differentiation and gating of carotid afferent traffic that shapes the respiratory pattern. J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, 1985) 94(3):1213–1229. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00639.2002Google Scholar
  48. Zhou Z, Champagnat J, Poon CS (1997) Phasic and long-term depression in brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius neurons: differing roles of AMPA receptor desensitization. J Neurosci Off J Soc Neurosci 17(14):5349–5356. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9204919

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Biomedical EngineeringCity University of Hong KongKowloon TongHong Kong
  2. 2.Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and TechnologyMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA