Recurrent Brain-Computer Interfaces
A recurrent brain-computer interface (or rBCI) exchanges information directly with the nervous system in a bidirectional manner, bypassing sensory and motor modalities. These devices can both sense neural activity (usually by amplifying and processing electrical potentials) and influence it (by electrical or other stimulation methods). Applications include neuroprostheses to replace lost function and neuromodulation devices to renormalize function following neurological injury or disease.
The earliest recurrent brain-computer interface was the “stimoceiver” built and used by the Spanish physiologist Jose Delgado (Delgado et al. 1968; Horgan 2005) at Yale University. He believed that this wireless device, which combined electrical recording and stimulation of the brain, could be used for treatment of neurological conditions including...
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