Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience

2015 Edition
| Editors: Dieter Jaeger, Ranu Jung

Retinal Disease and Remodeling

  • Robert E. Marc
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6675-8_659


Retinal remodeling is a collection of pathologic changes in the structure and function of the neural retina triggered by photoreceptor degenerations.

Detailed Description

Diseases That Cause Retinal Remodeling

Retinal remodeling is initiated by inherited gene defects and gene-risk coupled environmental stressors that lead to photoreceptor degeneration (Jones et al. 2003, 2012; Marc et al. 2003), e.g., retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and macular degeneration (AMD). Over 100 gene loci are associated with RP-like degenerations (Daiger and Sullivan 2013). Most RP-like degenerations directly affect rods, leaving many cones intact. Rod death can, however, trigger extensive bystander killing of cones. These different effects have been classified as cone sparing and cone decimating (Marc et al. 2007). After photoreceptor death, the surviving retina progressively changes form and signaling properties. Remodeling progression depends on the nature of the primary degeneration. Recessive RP...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Daiger SP, Sullivan LS (2013) Retinal information network. http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/Retnet/. Accessed 14 Sep 2013
  2. Jones BW, Kondo M, Terasaki H, Lin Y, McCall M, Marc RE (2012) Retinal remodeling. Jpn J Ophthalmol 56:289–306PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Jones BW, Watt CB, Frederick JM, Baehr W, Chen CK, Levine EM, Milam AH, LaVail MM, Marc RE (2003) Retinal remodeling triggered by photoreceptor degenerations. J Comp Neurol 464:1–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Lin Y, Jones BW, Liu A, Tucker JF, Rapp K, Luo L, Baehr W, Bernstein PS, Watt CB, Yang J-H, Shaw MV, Marc RE (2011) Retinoid receptors trigger neuritogenesis in retinal degenerations. FASEB J 26:81–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Marc RE, Jones BW, Anderson JR, Kinard K, Marshak DW, Wilson JH, Wensel T, Lucas RJ (2007) Neural reprogramming in retinal degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:3364–3371PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Marc R, Jones BW, Watt CB (2005) Retinal remodeling: circuitry revisions triggered by photoreceptor degeneration. In: Pinaud R et al (eds) Plasticity in the visual system: from genes to circuits. Springer, New York, pp 33–54Google Scholar
  7. Marc RE, Jones BW, Watt CB, Strettoi E (2003) Neural remodeling in retinal degeneration. Prog Retin Eye Res 22:607–655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Margolis DJ, Newkirk G, Euler T, Detwiler PB (2008) Functional stability of retinal ganglion cells after degeneration-induced changes in synaptic input. J Neurosci 28:6526–6536PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Toychiev AH, Ivanova E, Yee CW, Sagdullaev BT (2013) Block of gap junctions eliminates aberrant activity and restores light responses during retinal degeneration. J Neurosci 33:13972–13977PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.John A. Moran Eye CenterUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA