Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience

2015 Edition
| Editors: Dieter Jaeger, Ranu Jung

Resistivity/Conductivity of Extracellular Medium

  • Scott Lempka
  • Cameron McIntyre
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6675-8_549

Synonyms

Definition

The electrical properties of neural tissue describe how an applied electric field (e.g., biopotentials or electrical stimulation) propagates through the tissue. The complex nature of neural tissue leads to frequency-dependent, inhomogeneous, and anisotropic electrical properties within the tissue.

Detailed Description

Introduction

Electrical properties of neural tissue can be described in terms of electrical impedance. Electrical impedance describes the opposition to the flow of an electrical current through the tissue. Electrical impedance can be a complex quantity with both real (i.e., resistive) and imaginary (i.e., reactive) components. While several studies only consider the resistive component of neural tissue, neural tissue often displays frequency-dependent electrical properties in which it is often useful to consider both the resistive and the reactive components (Fig. 1). The electrical...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bedard C, Destexhe A (2012) Local field potentials. In: Brette R, Destexhe A (eds) Handbook of neural activity measurement. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 136–191Google Scholar
  2. Bosetti CA, Birdno MJ, Grill WM (2008) Analysis of the quasi-static approximation for calculating potentials generated by neural stimulation. J Neural Eng 5:44–53Google Scholar
  3. Buzsaki G, Anastassiou CA, Koch C (2012) The origin of extracellular fields and currents - EEG, ECoG, LFP and spikes. Nat Rev Neurosci 13:407–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chaturvedi A, Butson CR, Lempka SF, Cooper SE, McIntyre CC (2010) Patient-specific models of deep brain stimulation: influence of field model complexity on neural activation predictions. Brain Stimul 3:65–77PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Foster KR, Schwan HP (1996) Dielectric properties of tissues. In: Polk C, Postow E (eds) Biological effects of electromagnetic fields, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 25–102Google Scholar
  6. Gabriel C, Gabriel S, Corthout E (1996a) The dielectric properties of biological tissues: I. Literature survey. Phys Med Biol 41:2231–2249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Gabriel S, Lau RW, Gabriel C (1996b) The dielectric properties of biological tissues: II. Measurements in the frequency range 10 Hz to 20 GHz. Phys Med Biol 41:2251–2269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Geddes LA, Baker LE (1967) The specific resistance of biological material – a compendium of data for the biomedical engineer and physiologist. Med Biol Eng 5:271–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Kajikawa Y, Schroeder CE (2011) How local is the local field potential? Neuron 72:847–858PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Lempka SF, McIntyre CC (2013) Theoretical analysis of the local field potential in deep brain stimulation applications. PLoS One 8:e59839PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Lempka SF, Johnson MD, Moffitt MA, Otto KJ, Kipke DR, McIntyre CC (2011) Theoretical analysis of intracortical microelectrode recordings. J Neural Eng 8:045006PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Linden H, Pettersen KH, Einevoll GT (2010) Intrinsic dendritic filtering gives low-pass power spectra of local field potentials. J Comput Neurosci 29:423–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Logothetis NK, Kayser C, Oeltermann A (2007) In vivo measurement of cortical impedance spectrum in monkeys: implications for signal propagation. Neuron 55:809–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. McAdams ET, Jossinet J (1995) Tissue impedance: a historical overview. Physiol Meas 16:A1–A13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. McIntyre CC, Mori S, Sherman DL, Thakor NV, Vitek JL (2004) Electric field and stimulating influence generated by deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. Clin Neurophysiol 115:589–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Miranda PC, Lomarev M, Hallett M (2006) Modeling the current distribution during transcranial direct current stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol 117:1623–1629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Mitzdorf U (1985) Current source-density method and application in cat cerebral cortex: investigation in cat cerebral cortex: investigation of evoked potentials and EEG phenomena. Physiol Rev 65:37–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Moffitt MA, McIntyre CC (2005) Model-based analysis of cortical recording with silicon microelectrodes. Clin Neurophysiol 116:2240–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Nunez P, Srinivasan R (2006) Electric fields of the brain. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  20. Plonsey R, Heppner DB (1967) Considerations of quasi-stationarity in electrophysiological systems. Bull Math Biophys 29:657–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ranck JB (1963) Specific impedance of rabbit cerebral cortex. Exp Neurol 7:144–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ranck JB, BeMent SL (1965) The specific impedance of the dorsal columns of cat: an anisotropic medium. Exp Neurol 11:451–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Sperelakis N (2012) Origin of resting membrane potentials. In: Sperelakis N (ed) Cell physiology sourcebook: essentials of membrane biophysics, 4th edn. Elsevier, New York, pp 121–145Google Scholar
  24. Tuch DS, Wedeen VJ, Dale AM, George JS, Belliveau JW (2001) Conductivity tensor mapping of the human brain using diffusion tensor MRI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:11697–11701PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Neurological RestorationCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Biomedical Engineering, Neurology, and NeurosurgeryCase Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA